Technique and pitfalls of retrograde continuous warm blood cardioplegia

Tomas A. Salerno, George T. Christakis, James Abel, James Houck, Carlos A.M. Barrozo, Stephen E. Fremes, Robert J. Cusimano, Samuel V. Lichtenstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


The recent development of normothermic myocardial preservation and systemic perfusion during bypass has questioned the fundamental need for hypothermia during cardiac operations. The antegrade technique of almost continuous perfusion by the aortic root and vein grafts has been supplemented by continuous normothermic blood cardioplegia through the coronary sinus. Recently, great interest has been shown in this technique. It is important to describe the method in detail along with its potential shortcomings and dangers. This communication describes the technical details, pitfalls, and shortcomings of retrograde continuous warm blood cardioplegia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1023-1025
Number of pages3
JournalThe Annals of thoracic surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1991
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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