CCR2 is required for monocyte recruitment in many inflammatory processes, as well as conferring Th1 lymphokine responses. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) resolution represents a specific inflammatory response whereby the thrombus must be dissolved for restoration of blood flow. Using a stasis model of DVT in the mouse, we investigated the role of CCR2 on DVT resolution. Genetic deletion of CCR2 (CCR2-/-) was associated with larger thrombi at early and later time points, increased thrombus collagen, fewer thrombus monocytes (F4/80), and significantly impaired neovascularization. IL-2 and IFN-γ were significantly reduced in early CCR2-/- thrombi, whereas MCP-1 was significantly increased, and Th2 lymphokines were unaffected. Supplementation of CCR2-/- ice with IFN-γ normalized early thrombus resolution without increasing monocyte influx. Neither Ab depletion of IFN-γ nor genetic deletion of IFN-γ impaired early DVT resolution. Early fibrinolysis was not impaired in CCR2-/- mice, but a significant reduction in both matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity was observed. However, only MMP-9 activity was restored with administration of IFN-γ. We conclude that an early CCR2-dependent Th1 lymphokine response predominates in normal DVT resolution, mediates this in part by MMP-9 activation, but is not solely dependent on IFN-γ.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy