Synthetic surfactants: A new approach to the development of shark repellents

Eliahu Zlotkin, Samuel H. Gruber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


The toxic and shark repellent secretion of Pardachirus marmoratus (PMC) and a series of 15 surfactants and industrial detergents were assayed for their lethality to fish, termination of shark's tonic immobility and feeding inhibition of aggressive, hungry lemon sharks. Sodium and lithium lauryl sulfate salts were more potent than PMC in all three bioassays. Graduated activity, from mildly repellent to inactive, was demonstrated by several other surfactants. The abundance, versatility, chemical stability, modifiability, and low price of detergents justify their use in further development of effective shark repellents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)55-58
Number of pages4
JournalArchives of Toxicology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 1 1984


  • Lemon shark
  • Pardachirus flat fish
  • Shark repellents
  • Surfactants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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