Long-term use of HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) is associated with a lipodystrophy syndrome. To delineate the associated mechanisms, adipogenesis was determined in 3T3-L1 cells in the presence or absence of either indinavir (2-50 μg/ml) or ritonavir (0.4-10 μg/ml). A concentration-dependent decrease in both lipid (4-59%) and triglyceride (11-49%) levels was seen after 10 days of exposure. Simultaneous treatment with TNF-α showed a synergistic suppression in lipid levels by 45-95% at 10 U/ml and almost complete suppression at 100 U/ml. The effect of PIs on insulin-induced lipogenesis was monitored by [14C]glucose incorporation into lipids, which was suppressed by 21-86% in a concentration-dependent manner. Insulin-sensitizing agent, troglitazone (80 and 400 nM), effectively blocked the PI-mediated adipogenic suppression. Preadipocyte factor 1 gene (pref-1) expression, as monitored by RT-PCR, was downregulated (4- to 6-fold) within 48 hr after insulin stimulation; however, a smaller decrease (1.2- to 1.8-fold) was observed in PI-exposed cells. The decrease in proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) during adipogenesis was reversed on exposure to the PIs. Similarly, the plasminolytic activity was increased and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity was decreased in supernatants from PI-treated cells. The insulin-mediated induction (3- to 4-fold) of PAI-1 and PAI-2 message was suppressed on exposure to PIs, which was reversed by trogli-tazone treatment. Thus, the HIV-1 PIs may suppress adipogenesis by disrupting the concerted actions of host proteases that regulate ECM integrity required for initiation of differentiation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases