Surgical closure of patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic stroke patients

Shunichi Homma, Marco R. Di Tullio, Ralph L Sacco, Robert R. Sciacca, Craig Smith, J. P. Mohr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

186 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and Purpose: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is associated with stroke of unknown etiology or cryptogenic stroke. However, optimal treatment to prevent recurrence in cryptogenic stroke patients with PFO is not clearly defined. Since PFO represents a surgically repairable lesion, interest in closing it is high. This report reviews our experience with cryptogenic stroke patients with PFO who underwent surgical PFO closure and were followed for recurrence of neurological events. Methods: We followed 28 cryptogenic stroke patients (17 men, 11 women; mean age, 41±13 years) with transesophageal echocardiography-defined PFO who had undergone PFO closure by open thoracotomy. All patients selected for surgery refused, could not take, or failed warfarin therapy. They were followed by physician visits and telephone interviews. Results: There were no surgical complications. With a mean follow-up of 19 months, four patients experienced neurological event recurrence, one stroke, and three transient ischemic attacks. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that the actuarial rate of recurrence was 19.5% (95% confidence limit 2.2-36.8%) at 13 months of follow-up. None of the 17 patients (0%) younger than 45 years suffered a recurrence, whereas four of 11 patients (35%) aged 45 or older experienced a recurrence of neurological event (P<.02). Using a proportional hazards regression model, the increase in relative risk with increasing age was 2.76 per 10 years (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 7.16). Conclusions: Although PFO is easily repairable in patients with cryptogenic stroke, its closure does not consistently prevent recurrence of ischemic events. The recurrence appearS to occur more frequently in older cryptogenic stroke patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2376-2381
Number of pages6
JournalStroke
Volume28
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 1997
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Patent Foramen Ovale
Stroke
Recurrence
Transient Ischemic Attack
Transesophageal Echocardiography
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Warfarin
Thoracotomy
Survival Analysis
Proportional Hazards Models
Confidence Intervals
Interviews
Physicians

Keywords

  • Foramen ovale, patent
  • Stroke management
  • Surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Homma, S., Di Tullio, M. R., Sacco, R. L., Sciacca, R. R., Smith, C., & Mohr, J. P. (1997). Surgical closure of patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic stroke patients. Stroke, 28(12), 2376-2381.

Surgical closure of patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic stroke patients. / Homma, Shunichi; Di Tullio, Marco R.; Sacco, Ralph L; Sciacca, Robert R.; Smith, Craig; Mohr, J. P.

In: Stroke, Vol. 28, No. 12, 01.12.1997, p. 2376-2381.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Homma, S, Di Tullio, MR, Sacco, RL, Sciacca, RR, Smith, C & Mohr, JP 1997, 'Surgical closure of patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic stroke patients', Stroke, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2376-2381.
Homma S, Di Tullio MR, Sacco RL, Sciacca RR, Smith C, Mohr JP. Surgical closure of patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic stroke patients. Stroke. 1997 Dec 1;28(12):2376-2381.
Homma, Shunichi ; Di Tullio, Marco R. ; Sacco, Ralph L ; Sciacca, Robert R. ; Smith, Craig ; Mohr, J. P. / Surgical closure of patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic stroke patients. In: Stroke. 1997 ; Vol. 28, No. 12. pp. 2376-2381.
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abstract = "Background and Purpose: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is associated with stroke of unknown etiology or cryptogenic stroke. However, optimal treatment to prevent recurrence in cryptogenic stroke patients with PFO is not clearly defined. Since PFO represents a surgically repairable lesion, interest in closing it is high. This report reviews our experience with cryptogenic stroke patients with PFO who underwent surgical PFO closure and were followed for recurrence of neurological events. Methods: We followed 28 cryptogenic stroke patients (17 men, 11 women; mean age, 41±13 years) with transesophageal echocardiography-defined PFO who had undergone PFO closure by open thoracotomy. All patients selected for surgery refused, could not take, or failed warfarin therapy. They were followed by physician visits and telephone interviews. Results: There were no surgical complications. With a mean follow-up of 19 months, four patients experienced neurological event recurrence, one stroke, and three transient ischemic attacks. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that the actuarial rate of recurrence was 19.5{\%} (95{\%} confidence limit 2.2-36.8{\%}) at 13 months of follow-up. None of the 17 patients (0{\%}) younger than 45 years suffered a recurrence, whereas four of 11 patients (35{\%}) aged 45 or older experienced a recurrence of neurological event (P<.02). Using a proportional hazards regression model, the increase in relative risk with increasing age was 2.76 per 10 years (95{\%} confidence interval 1.07 to 7.16). Conclusions: Although PFO is easily repairable in patients with cryptogenic stroke, its closure does not consistently prevent recurrence of ischemic events. The recurrence appearS to occur more frequently in older cryptogenic stroke patients.",
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AB - Background and Purpose: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is associated with stroke of unknown etiology or cryptogenic stroke. However, optimal treatment to prevent recurrence in cryptogenic stroke patients with PFO is not clearly defined. Since PFO represents a surgically repairable lesion, interest in closing it is high. This report reviews our experience with cryptogenic stroke patients with PFO who underwent surgical PFO closure and were followed for recurrence of neurological events. Methods: We followed 28 cryptogenic stroke patients (17 men, 11 women; mean age, 41±13 years) with transesophageal echocardiography-defined PFO who had undergone PFO closure by open thoracotomy. All patients selected for surgery refused, could not take, or failed warfarin therapy. They were followed by physician visits and telephone interviews. Results: There were no surgical complications. With a mean follow-up of 19 months, four patients experienced neurological event recurrence, one stroke, and three transient ischemic attacks. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that the actuarial rate of recurrence was 19.5% (95% confidence limit 2.2-36.8%) at 13 months of follow-up. None of the 17 patients (0%) younger than 45 years suffered a recurrence, whereas four of 11 patients (35%) aged 45 or older experienced a recurrence of neurological event (P<.02). Using a proportional hazards regression model, the increase in relative risk with increasing age was 2.76 per 10 years (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 7.16). Conclusions: Although PFO is easily repairable in patients with cryptogenic stroke, its closure does not consistently prevent recurrence of ischemic events. The recurrence appearS to occur more frequently in older cryptogenic stroke patients.

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