Surgical and hybrid lead extraction has developed considerably over the past several decades. Although transvenous lead extraction is the standard approach to remove infected or malfunctioning cardiac implantable electronic device leads, surgical approaches may be necessary in complex cases not amenable to transvenous lead extraction or in cases that involve concomitant pathologies, such as tricuspid valve regurgitation. We describe our experience with 4 minimally invasive surgical approaches to lead extraction as well as our experience with hybrid open heart surgery and transvenous lead extraction as an option for patients who present with concomitant conditions.
- Cardiac implantable electronic device
- Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
- Lead extraction
- Minimally invasive
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)