Bone marrow abnormalities are frequently observed in HIV-1-infected individuals. Infection of marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may abrogate their growth properties and hematopoietic supportive functions. To delineate the cell type infected, and factors responsible for the deleterious effects, human bone marrow cells were exposed to HIV-1 in vitro. By week 4, the ability of MSCs to form colonies of purely fibroblasts (CFU-F) and mixed colonies of fibroblasts and adipocytes (CFU-FA) was suppressed by 23 ± 5 and 55 ± 7%, respectively. The p24 concentration in culture supernatants steadily declined from 170 ng/ml in the inoculum to 134 ± 30, 35 ± 15, 2.3 ± 3, and < 0.02 ng/ml at the end of week 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. However, even at week 4, coculturing with MT-4 lymphocytes for 1 week dramatically increased p24 levels. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, using HIV-1-specific primers, and in situ hybridization with an HIV-1 cDNA probe demonstrated the presence of virus-specific nucleic acids within stromal colonies. Coimmunostaining with antibody to CD83 implicated the presence of HIV-1 within dendritic progenitor cells. Immunostaining with HIV-1 Tat antibody demonstrated the presence of Tat protein and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assays showed increased (160-220%) mRNA levels for inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interleukin 1β [IL-1β], IL-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α [MIP-1α]). A concentration-dependent decrease in CFU-STROs was observed on incubation with either Tat protein (1-100 ng/ml) or with TNF-α or IL-1β (0.025-25 ng/ml). These results suggest that HIV-1 infection of stromal cells may produce inhibitory factors that suppress the clonogenic potential of MSCs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases