Supplemental Fixation of Inner Graft Limbs in All-Inside, Quadrupled, Single-Tendon Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Graft Construct Yields Improved Biomechanical Properties

Carlos M. Barrera, Hayley Ennis, Gaëtan J.R. Delcroix, David Kaimrajh, Edward Milne, Loren Latta, Michael Baraga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Purpose: To compare the time-zero load to failure of a quadrupled, single-tendon, all-inside anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction graft construct with (supplemented) and without the incorporation of inner-limb whipstitch sutures (control) into a tibial suspensory fixation button. Methods: Eight matched pairs of peroneus longus tendons were prepared according to a quadrupled, all-inside ACL soft-tissue graft technique with 1 side serving as a control and the contralateral side supplemented. The constructs were biomechanically tested for strain in the inner and outer limbs during a preconditioning protocol, single-cycle load to failure, and elongation of the whole construct. Results: Ultimate load to failure was significantly higher in the supplemented group: 797.5 ± 49.6 N (95% confidence interval [CI], 763.13-831.87 N) versus 719.6 ± 69.6 N (95% CI, 671.38-767.82 N; P =.044). Less graft elongation at failure was observed in the supplemented group (3.1 ± 1.5 mm; 95% CI, 2.07-4.17 mm) versus the control group (21.0 ± 21.2 mm; 95% CI, 6.31-35.69 mm; P =.052). The number of grafts undergoing a 5-mm or greater change in length at failure was 1 of 8 in the supplemented group versus 5 of 8 in the control group (P =.038). Conclusions: Inner-limb supplemental tibial fixation results in higher time-zero load to failure and decreased graft elongation in a quadrupled, single-tendon, all-inside ACL reconstruction graft construct. Clinical Relevance: The weak point of a single-tendon, quadrupled, all-inside ACL graft construct is the tendon-to-tendon suturing to secure the inner limbs of the graft. Adding supplemental fixation by incorporating the sutures from the inner limb to the tibial suspensory fixation button leads to a higher time-zero load to failure and decreased graft elongation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)909-918
Number of pages10
JournalArthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery
Volume35
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Tendons
Extremities
Transplants
Confidence Intervals
Anterior Cruciate Ligament
Sutures
Control Groups

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

Supplemental Fixation of Inner Graft Limbs in All-Inside, Quadrupled, Single-Tendon Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Graft Construct Yields Improved Biomechanical Properties. / Barrera, Carlos M.; Ennis, Hayley; Delcroix, Gaëtan J.R.; Kaimrajh, David; Milne, Edward; Latta, Loren; Baraga, Michael.

In: Arthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, Vol. 35, No. 3, 01.03.2019, p. 909-918.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Purpose: To compare the time-zero load to failure of a quadrupled, single-tendon, all-inside anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction graft construct with (supplemented) and without the incorporation of inner-limb whipstitch sutures (control) into a tibial suspensory fixation button. Methods: Eight matched pairs of peroneus longus tendons were prepared according to a quadrupled, all-inside ACL soft-tissue graft technique with 1 side serving as a control and the contralateral side supplemented. The constructs were biomechanically tested for strain in the inner and outer limbs during a preconditioning protocol, single-cycle load to failure, and elongation of the whole construct. Results: Ultimate load to failure was significantly higher in the supplemented group: 797.5 ± 49.6 N (95{\%} confidence interval [CI], 763.13-831.87 N) versus 719.6 ± 69.6 N (95{\%} CI, 671.38-767.82 N; P =.044). Less graft elongation at failure was observed in the supplemented group (3.1 ± 1.5 mm; 95{\%} CI, 2.07-4.17 mm) versus the control group (21.0 ± 21.2 mm; 95{\%} CI, 6.31-35.69 mm; P =.052). The number of grafts undergoing a 5-mm or greater change in length at failure was 1 of 8 in the supplemented group versus 5 of 8 in the control group (P =.038). Conclusions: Inner-limb supplemental tibial fixation results in higher time-zero load to failure and decreased graft elongation in a quadrupled, single-tendon, all-inside ACL reconstruction graft construct. Clinical Relevance: The weak point of a single-tendon, quadrupled, all-inside ACL graft construct is the tendon-to-tendon suturing to secure the inner limbs of the graft. Adding supplemental fixation by incorporating the sutures from the inner limb to the tibial suspensory fixation button leads to a higher time-zero load to failure and decreased graft elongation.",
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T1 - Supplemental Fixation of Inner Graft Limbs in All-Inside, Quadrupled, Single-Tendon Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Graft Construct Yields Improved Biomechanical Properties

AU - Barrera, Carlos M.

AU - Ennis, Hayley

AU - Delcroix, Gaëtan J.R.

AU - Kaimrajh, David

AU - Milne, Edward

AU - Latta, Loren

AU - Baraga, Michael

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N2 - Purpose: To compare the time-zero load to failure of a quadrupled, single-tendon, all-inside anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction graft construct with (supplemented) and without the incorporation of inner-limb whipstitch sutures (control) into a tibial suspensory fixation button. Methods: Eight matched pairs of peroneus longus tendons were prepared according to a quadrupled, all-inside ACL soft-tissue graft technique with 1 side serving as a control and the contralateral side supplemented. The constructs were biomechanically tested for strain in the inner and outer limbs during a preconditioning protocol, single-cycle load to failure, and elongation of the whole construct. Results: Ultimate load to failure was significantly higher in the supplemented group: 797.5 ± 49.6 N (95% confidence interval [CI], 763.13-831.87 N) versus 719.6 ± 69.6 N (95% CI, 671.38-767.82 N; P =.044). Less graft elongation at failure was observed in the supplemented group (3.1 ± 1.5 mm; 95% CI, 2.07-4.17 mm) versus the control group (21.0 ± 21.2 mm; 95% CI, 6.31-35.69 mm; P =.052). The number of grafts undergoing a 5-mm or greater change in length at failure was 1 of 8 in the supplemented group versus 5 of 8 in the control group (P =.038). Conclusions: Inner-limb supplemental tibial fixation results in higher time-zero load to failure and decreased graft elongation in a quadrupled, single-tendon, all-inside ACL reconstruction graft construct. Clinical Relevance: The weak point of a single-tendon, quadrupled, all-inside ACL graft construct is the tendon-to-tendon suturing to secure the inner limbs of the graft. Adding supplemental fixation by incorporating the sutures from the inner limb to the tibial suspensory fixation button leads to a higher time-zero load to failure and decreased graft elongation.

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