Strong affirmative action

James W. Nickel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


This paper analyses and defends strong affirmative action (SAA). SAA goes beyond weaker forms by using numerical goals, non-traditional selection procedures, or preferential policies. Functions of SAA are identified and related to possible justifications. Claims that preferential policies are unfair to those they disadvantage are considered and rebutted. Diversity as a rationale for affirmative action is discussed and evaluated. And the limits of SAA in assisting the more disadvantaged segments of minority communities are noted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-57
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Issue number1
StatePublished - Oct 1 1990

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Demography
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)


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