Stroke risk factors and stroke prevention

Mitchell S. Elkind, Ralph L Sacco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

99 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of chronic disability in the United States. In the past several decades, case series, case-control studies, and prospective cohort studies have successfully identified nonmodifiable risk markers for stroke, such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, heredity and several well-established modifiable risk factors for ischemic stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation, other cardiac diseases, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, carotid stenosis, and transient ischemic attack (TIA) are all potentially treatable conditions that predispose to stroke. Research on other putative stroke risk factors - including antiphospholipid antibodies, elevated homocysteine, alcohol, inflammation, and infection - is ongoing. Controlled trials have shown that stroke risk can be reduced by blood- pressure control, lipid-lowering agents, surgery for carotid stenosis, warfarin for atrial fibrillation, and antiplatelet agents. It is hoped that an improved understanding of stroke risk factors will reduce the future burden of stroke.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)429-440
Number of pages12
JournalSeminars in Neurology
Volume18
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 1998
Externally publishedYes

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Stroke
Carotid Stenosis
Atrial Fibrillation
Antiphospholipid Antibodies
Heredity
Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
Transient Ischemic Attack
Homocysteine
Warfarin
Hyperlipidemias
Case-Control Studies
Cause of Death
Heart Diseases
Cohort Studies
Smoking
Alcohols
Prospective Studies
Blood Pressure
Hypertension
Inflammation

Keywords

  • Cerebrovascular disorders
  • Epidemiology
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Stroke risk factors and stroke prevention. / Elkind, Mitchell S.; Sacco, Ralph L.

In: Seminars in Neurology, Vol. 18, No. 4, 01.12.1998, p. 429-440.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Elkind, MS & Sacco, RL 1998, 'Stroke risk factors and stroke prevention', Seminars in Neurology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 429-440.
Elkind, Mitchell S. ; Sacco, Ralph L. / Stroke risk factors and stroke prevention. In: Seminars in Neurology. 1998 ; Vol. 18, No. 4. pp. 429-440.
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