Stratospheric Injection of Brominated Very Short-Lived Substances: Aircraft Observations in the Western Pacific and Representation in Global Models

Pamela A. Wales, Ross J. Salawitch, Julie M. Nicely, Daniel C. Anderson, Timothy P. Canty, Sunil Baidar, Barbara Dix, Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, Dexian Chen, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Douglas E. Kinnison, Jean Francois Lamarque, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Elliot L. Atlas, Samuel R. Hall, Maria A. NavarroLaura L. Pan, Sue M. Schauffler, Meghan Stell, Simone Tilmes, Kirk Ullmann, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, Phoebe Graf, Ryan Hossaini, Patrick Jöckel, Eva Mancini, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, David Saint-Martin, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane A. Stone, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, Guang Zeng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


We quantify the stratospheric injection of brominated very short-lived substances (VSLS) based on aircraft observations acquired in winter 2014 above the Tropical Western Pacific during the CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) and the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) campaigns. The overall contribution of VSLS to stratospheric bromine was determined to be 5.0 ± 2.1 ppt, in agreement with the 5 ± 3 ppt estimate provided in the 2014 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Ozone Assessment report (WMO 2014), but with lower uncertainty. Measurements of organic bromine compounds, including VSLS, were analyzed using CFC-11 as a reference stratospheric tracer. From this analysis, 2.9 ± 0.6 ppt of bromine enters the stratosphere via organic source gas injection of VSLS. This value is two times the mean bromine content of VSLS measured at the tropical tropopause, for regions outside of the Tropical Western Pacific, summarized in WMO 2014. A photochemical box model, constrained to CONTRAST observations, was used to estimate inorganic bromine from measurements of BrO collected by two instruments. The analysis indicates that 2.1 ± 2.1 ppt of bromine enters the stratosphere via inorganic product gas injection. We also examine the representation of brominated VSLS within 14 global models that participated in the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative. The representation of stratospheric bromine in these models generally lies within the range of our empirical estimate. Models that include explicit representations of VSLS compare better with bromine observations in the lower stratosphere than models that utilize longer-lived chemicals as a surrogate for VSLS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5690-5719
Number of pages30
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 27 2018


  • CCMI
  • VSLS
  • bromine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science
  • Geophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science


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