State of the climate in 2013

Jessica Blunden, Derek S. Arndt, Kate M. Willett, A. Johannes Dolman, Dale F. Hurst, Jared Rennie, Peter W. Thorne, Markus G. Donat, Robert J H Dunn, Craig S. Long, John R. Christy, Jeannette Noetzli, Hanne H. Christiansen, Mauro Gugliemin, Vladimir E. Romanovsky, Nicolai I. Shiklomanov, Sharon L. Smith, Lin Zhao, David A. Robinson, Mauri S. Pelto & 404 others Carl A. Mears, Shu Oeng Ben Ho, Liang Peng, Junhong Wang, Russell S. Vose, Kyle Hilburn, Xungang Yin, Michael C. Kruk, Andreas Becker, Michael J. Foster, Steven A. Ackerman, Andrew K. Heidinger, Brent C. Maddux, M. Stengel, Hyuanjun Kim, Taikan Oki, Matthew Rodell, Don P. Chambers, James S. Famiglietti, Wouter A. Dorigo, D. Chung, Robert M. Parinussa, C. Reimer, S. Hahn, Y. Y. Liu, Wolfgang W. Wagner, Rochard A M de Jeu, C. Paulik, Guojie Wang, Rob Allan, Chris K. Folland, Isabelle Tobin, Paul Berrisford, Robert Vautard, Tim R. McVicar, David P. Kratz, Paul W. Stackhouse, Takmeng Wong, P. Sawaengphokhai, Anne C. Wilber, Shashi K. Gupta, Norman G. Loeb, Kathy O. Lantz, Ed J. Dlugokencky, Bradley D. Hall, Stephen A. Montzka, Geoff S. Dutton, Jens Mühle, James W. Elkins, Angela Benedetti, Luke T. Jones, Johannes W. Kaiser, Jean Jacques Morcrette, Samuel Rémy, Mark Weber, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Ronald J. van der A., Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Vitali E. Fioletov, Stacey M. Frith, Diego Loyola, Jeannette D. Wild, Sean M. Davis, Karen H. Rosenlof, Owen R. Cooper, Jerry Ziemke, Johannes Flemming, Antje Inness, Shaun Quegan, Phillipe Ciais, M. Santoro, Bernard Pinty, Nadine Gobron, Guido R. van der Werf, Michele L. Newlin, Margarita C. Gregg, Yan Xue, Zeng Zhen Hu, Arun Kumar, Viva Banzon, Thomas M. Smith, Nick A. Rayner, Gregory C. Johnson, John M. Lyman, Joshua K. Willis, Tim Boyer, John Antonov, Simon A. Good, Catia M. Domingues, Nathan Bindoff, Lisan Yu, Xiangze Jin, G. S E Lagerloef, Hsun Ying Kao, James Reagan, Claudia Schmid, Ricardo Locarnini, Rick Lumpkin, Gustavo Goni, Kathleen Dohan, Molly O. Baringer, Gerard McCarthy, Matthias Lankhorst, David A. Smeed, Uwe Send, Darren Rayner, William E Johns, Christopher S. Meinen, Stuart A. Cunningham, Torsten O. Kanzow, Eleanor Frajka-Williams, Jochem Marotzke, Silvia Garzoli, Shenfu Dong, Denis Volkov, Will R. Hobbs, Mark A. Merrifield, Philip Thompson, Eric Leuliette, R. Steven Nerem, Ben Hamlington, Gary T. Mitchum, Kathleen McInnes, John J. Marra, Melisa Menéndez, William Sweet, Richard A. Feely, Rik Wanninkhof, Christopher L. Sabine, Jeremy T. Mathis, Taro Takahashi, Samar Khatiwala, Bryan A. Franz, Michael J. Behrenfeld, David A. Siegel, P. Jeremy Werdell, Howard J. Diamond, Gerald D. Bell, Michelle L’Heureux, Michael S. Halpert, Stephen Baxter, Jonathan Gottschalck, Chris W. Landsea, Stanley B. Goldenberg, Richard J. Pasch, Eric S. Blake, Jae Schemm, Todd B. Kimberlain, Carl J. Schreck, Thomas E. Evans, Suzana J. Camargo, Karin L. Gleason, Blair C. Trewin, Andrew M. Lorrey, Nicolas C. Fauchereau, Petra R. Chappell, Steve Ready, Gustavo J. Goni, John A. Knaff, I. I. Lin, Bin Wang, A. Brett Mullan, Alexandre B. Pezza, Caio A S Coelho, Chunzai Wang, Chris T. Fogarty, Philip Klotzbach, Jing Jia Luo, Mark A. Lander, Charles P Chip Guard, Martin O. Jeffries, Jacqueline Richter-Menge, James Overland, Jeff Key, E. Hanna, I. Hanssen-Bauer, B. M. Kim, S. J. Kim, J. Walsh, M. Wang, U. S. Bhatt, Yinghui Liu, R. Stone, C. Cox, V. Walden, Jennifer Francis, S. Vavrus, Q. Tang, Germar Bernhard, Gloria Manney, Jnes Uwe Grooß, Rolf Müller, Anu Heikkilä, Bjorn Johnsen, Tapani Koskela, Kaisa Lakkala, T. Svendby, A. Dahlback, Lori Bruhwiler, T. Laurila, D. Worthy, P. K. Quinn, A. Stohl, A. Baklanov, M. G. Flanner, A. Herber, K. Kupiainen, K. S. Law, J. Schmale, S. Sharma, V. Vestreng, K. Von Salzen, Don Perovich, S. Gerland, S. Hendricks, W. Meier, M. Nicolaus, M. Tschudi, Mary Louise Timmermans, I. Ashik, I. Frolov, H. K. Ha, R. Ingvaldsen, T. Kikuchi, T. W. Kim, R. Krishfield, H. Loeng, S. Nishino, R. Pickart, I. Polyakov, B. Rabe, U. Schauer, P. Schlosser, W. M. Smethie, V. Sokolov, M. Steele, J. Toole, W. Williams, R. Woodgate, S. Zimmerman, J. N. Cross, W. Evans, L. Anderson, M. Yamamoto-Kawai, Chris Derksen, R. Brown, K. Luojus, Martin Sharp, G. Wolken, M. L. Geai, D. Burgess, A. Arendt, B. Wouters, J. Kohler, L. M. Andreassen, Marco Tedesco, J. E. Box, John Cappelen, X. Fettweis, T. S. Jensen, Thomas Mote, A. K. Rennermalm, L. C. Smith, R. S W van de Wal, John Wahr, Claude R. Duguay, L. C. Brown, Kyun Kuk Kang, H. Kheyrollah Pour, D. A. Streletskiy, D. S. Drozdov, G. V. Malkova, N. G. Oberman, A. L. Kholodov, S. S. Marchenko, Ryan L. Fogt, Ted A. Scambos, Kyle R. Clem, Sandra Barreira, Steve Colwell, Linda M. Keller, Matthew A. Lazzara, Alberto Setzer, David H. Bromwich, Sheng Hung Wang, Lei Wang, Hongxing Liu, Shujie Wang, Song Shu, Robert A. Massom, Phillip Reid, Sharon Stammerjohn, Jan Lieser, Paul A. Newman, Natalya Kramarova, Eric R. Nash, Michael C. Pitts, Bryan Johnson, Michelle L. Santee, Geir O. Braathen, Garret G. Campbell, Allen Pope, Terry Haran, Ahira Sánchez-Lugo, James A. Renwick, Wassila M. Thiaw, Scott J. Weaver, Lucie A. Vincent, David Phillips, Robert Whitewood, Jake Crouch, R. R. Heim, Chris Fenimore, John Augustine, R. Pascual, Adelina Albanil, J. L. Vazquez, Rene Lobato, Jorge A. Amador, Eric J. Alfaro, Hugo G. Hidalgo, Ana M. Durán-Quesada, Blanca Calderón, Ingrid L. Rivera, Carla Vega, Tannecia S. Stephenson, Michael A. Taylor, Adrian R. Trotman, Avalon O. Porter, Idelmis T. Gonzalez, Jacqueline M. Spence, Natalie McLean, Jayaka D. Campbell, Glenroy Brown, Mary Butler, Rosalind C. Blenman, Arlene P. Aaron-Morrison, Vernie Marcellin-Honore’, Rodney Martínez, Juan Arévalo, Gualberto Carrasco, Christian Euscátegui, Juan Bazo, Juan J. Nieto, Eduardo Zambrano, José A. Marengo, Lincoln M. Alves, Jhan C. Espinoza, Josyane Ronchail, Mario Bidegain, Jose L. Stella, Olga C. Penalba, Khadija Kabidi, Amal Sayouri, Awatif Ebrahim, I. A. James, Francis S. Dekaa, Fatou Sima, K. Alama Coulibaly, Wilson Gitau, L. Chang’a, Christopher S. Oludhe, Laban A. Ogallo, Zachary Atheru, Peter Ambenje, Agnes Kijazi, H. Ng’ongolo, P. Luhunga, Pamela Levira, Andries Kruger, Charlotte McBride, Zo Rakotomavo, Guillaume Jumaux, Katja Trachte, Peter Bissolli, Andre Obregón, Helga Nitsche, David Parker, John J. Kennedy, Michael Kendon, Ricardo Trigo, David Barriopedro, A. Ramos, Serhat Sensoy, Diana Hovhannisyan, Olga N. Bulygina, Mahbobeh Khoshkam, Natalia N. Korshunova, Lamjav Oyunjargal, E. Hyung Park, Fatemeh Rahimzadeh, Madhavan Rajeevan, Vyacheslav N. Razuvaev, Jayashree V. Revadekar, A. K. Srivastava, R. Yamada, Peiqun Zhang, Shotaro Tanaka, Kazuyoshi Yoshimatsu, Hiroshi Ohno, Catherine Ganter, Gregor R. Macara, Simon McGree, Skie Tobin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

101 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In 2013, the vast majority of the monitored climate variables reported here maintained trends established in recent decades. ENSO was in a neutral state during the entire year, remaining mostly on the cool side of neutral with modest impacts on regional weather patterns around the world. This follows several years dominated by the effects of either La Niña or El Niño events. According to several independent analyses, 2013 was again among the 10 warmest years on record at the global scale, both at the Earth’s surface and through the troposphere. Some regions in the Southern Hemisphere had record or near-record high temperatures for the year. Australia observed its hottest year on record, while Argentina and New Zealand reported their second and third hottest years, respectively. In Antarctica, Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station reported its highest annual temperature since records began in 1957. At the opposite pole, the Arctic observed its seventh warmest year since records began in the early 20th century. At 20-m depth, record high temperatures were measured at some permafrost stations on the North Slope of Alaska and in the Brooks Range. In the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, anomalous meridional atmospheric circulation occurred throughout much of the year, leading to marked regional extremes of both temperature and precipitation. Cold temperature anomalies during winter across Eurasia were followed by warm spring temperature anomalies, which were linked to a new record low Eurasian snow cover extent in May. Minimum sea ice extent in the Arctic was the sixth lowest since satellite observations began in 1979. Including 2013, all seven lowest extents on record have occurred in the past seven years. Antarctica, on the other hand, had above-average sea ice extent throughout 2013, with 116 days of new daily high extent records, including a new daily maximum sea ice area of 19.57 million km2 reached on 1 October. ENSO-neutral conditions in the eastern central Pacific Ocean and a negative Pacific decadal oscillation pattern in the North Pacific had the largest impacts on the global sea surface temperature in 2013. The North Pacific reached a historic high temperature in 2013 and on balance the globally-averaged sea surface temperature was among the 10 highest on record. Overall, the salt content in nearsurface ocean waters increased while in intermediate waters it decreased. Global mean sea level continued to rise during 2013, on pace with a trend of 3.2 mm yr-1 over the past two decades. A portion of this trend (0.5 mm yr-1) has been attributed to natural variability associated with the Pacific decadal oscillation as well as to ongoing contributions from the melting of glaciers and ice sheets and ocean warming. Global tropical cyclone frequency during 2013 was slightly above average with a total of 94 storms, although the North Atlantic Basin had its quietest hurricane season since 1994. In the Western North Pacific Basin, Super Typhoon Haiyan, the deadliest tropical cyclone of 2013, had 1-minute sustained winds estimated to be 170 kt (87.5 m s-1) on 7 November, the highest wind speed ever assigned to a tropical cyclone. High storm surge was also associated with Haiyan as it made landfall over the central Philippines, an area where sea level is currently at historic highs, increasing by 200 mm since 1970. In the atmosphere, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide all continued to increase in 2013. As in previous years, each of these major greenhouse gases once again reached historic high concentrations. In the Arctic, carbon dioxide and methane increased at the same rate as the global increase. These increases are likely due to export from lower latitudes rather than a consequence of increases in Arctic sources, such as thawing permafrost. At Mauna Loa, Hawaii, for the first time since measurements began in 1958, the daily average mixing ratio of carbon dioxide exceeded 400 ppm on 9 May. The state of these variables, along with dozens of others, and the 2013 climate conditions of regions around the world are discussed in further detail in this 24th edition of the State of the Climate series.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S1-S279
JournalBulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Volume95
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

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climate
tropical cyclone
sea ice
Pacific Decadal Oscillation
carbon dioxide
permafrost
temperature anomaly
El Nino-Southern Oscillation
ocean
sea surface temperature
methane
sea level
intermediate water
meridional circulation
storm surge
typhoon
thawing
climate conditions
nitrous oxide
basin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

Blunden, J., Arndt, D. S., Willett, K. M., Dolman, A. J., Hurst, D. F., Rennie, J., ... Tobin, S. (2014). State of the climate in 2013. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 95(7), S1-S279. https://doi.org/10.1175/2014BAMSStateoftheClimate.1

State of the climate in 2013. / Blunden, Jessica; Arndt, Derek S.; Willett, Kate M.; Dolman, A. Johannes; Hurst, Dale F.; Rennie, Jared; Thorne, Peter W.; Donat, Markus G.; Dunn, Robert J H; Long, Craig S.; Christy, John R.; Noetzli, Jeannette; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Gugliemin, Mauro; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Shiklomanov, Nicolai I.; Smith, Sharon L.; Zhao, Lin; Robinson, David A.; Pelto, Mauri S.; Mears, Carl A.; Ho, Shu Oeng Ben; Peng, Liang; Wang, Junhong; Vose, Russell S.; Hilburn, Kyle; Yin, Xungang; Kruk, Michael C.; Becker, Andreas; Foster, Michael J.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Maddux, Brent C.; Stengel, M.; Kim, Hyuanjun; Oki, Taikan; Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.; Dorigo, Wouter A.; Chung, D.; Parinussa, Robert M.; Reimer, C.; Hahn, S.; Liu, Y. Y.; Wagner, Wolfgang W.; de Jeu, Rochard A M; Paulik, C.; Wang, Guojie; Allan, Rob; Folland, Chris K.; Tobin, Isabelle; Berrisford, Paul; Vautard, Robert; McVicar, Tim R.; Kratz, David P.; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Wong, Takmeng; Sawaengphokhai, P.; Wilber, Anne C.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Loeb, Norman G.; Lantz, Kathy O.; Dlugokencky, Ed J.; Hall, Bradley D.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Dutton, Geoff S.; Mühle, Jens; Elkins, James W.; Benedetti, Angela; Jones, Luke T.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Morcrette, Jean Jacques; Rémy, Samuel; Weber, Mark; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; van der A., Ronald J.; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Frith, Stacey M.; Loyola, Diego; Wild, Jeannette D.; Davis, Sean M.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Cooper, Owen R.; Ziemke, Jerry; Flemming, Johannes; Inness, Antje; Quegan, Shaun; Ciais, Phillipe; Santoro, M.; Pinty, Bernard; Gobron, Nadine; van der Werf, Guido R.; Newlin, Michele L.; Gregg, Margarita C.; Xue, Yan; Hu, Zeng Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Banzon, Viva; Smith, Thomas M.; Rayner, Nick A.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Lyman, John M.; Willis, Joshua K.; Boyer, Tim; Antonov, John; Good, Simon A.; Domingues, Catia M.; Bindoff, Nathan; Yu, Lisan; Jin, Xiangze; Lagerloef, G. S E; Kao, Hsun Ying; Reagan, James; Schmid, Claudia; Locarnini, Ricardo; Lumpkin, Rick; Goni, Gustavo; Dohan, Kathleen; Baringer, Molly O.; McCarthy, Gerard; Lankhorst, Matthias; Smeed, David A.; Send, Uwe; Rayner, Darren; Johns, William E; Meinen, Christopher S.; Cunningham, Stuart A.; Kanzow, Torsten O.; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Marotzke, Jochem; Garzoli, Silvia; Dong, Shenfu; Volkov, Denis; Hobbs, Will R.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Thompson, Philip; Leuliette, Eric; Nerem, R. Steven; Hamlington, Ben; Mitchum, Gary T.; McInnes, Kathleen; Marra, John J.; Menéndez, Melisa; Sweet, William; Feely, Richard A.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Sabine, Christopher L.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Takahashi, Taro; Khatiwala, Samar; Franz, Bryan A.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Siegel, David A.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Diamond, Howard J.; Bell, Gerald D.; L’Heureux, Michelle; Halpert, Michael S.; Baxter, Stephen; Gottschalck, Jonathan; Landsea, Chris W.; Goldenberg, Stanley B.; Pasch, Richard J.; Blake, Eric S.; Schemm, Jae; Kimberlain, Todd B.; Schreck, Carl J.; Evans, Thomas E.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Gleason, Karin L.; Trewin, Blair C.; Lorrey, Andrew M.; Fauchereau, Nicolas C.; Chappell, Petra R.; Ready, Steve; Goni, Gustavo J.; Knaff, John A.; Lin, I. I.; Wang, Bin; Mullan, A. Brett; Pezza, Alexandre B.; Coelho, Caio A S; Wang, Chunzai; Fogarty, Chris T.; Klotzbach, Philip; Luo, Jing Jia; Lander, Mark A.; Guard, Charles P Chip; Jeffries, Martin O.; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline; Overland, James; Key, Jeff; Hanna, E.; Hanssen-Bauer, I.; Kim, B. M.; Kim, S. J.; Walsh, J.; Wang, M.; Bhatt, U. S.; Liu, Yinghui; Stone, R.; Cox, C.; Walden, V.; Francis, Jennifer; Vavrus, S.; Tang, Q.; Bernhard, Germar; Manney, Gloria; Grooß, Jnes Uwe; Müller, Rolf; Heikkilä, Anu; Johnsen, Bjorn; Koskela, Tapani; Lakkala, Kaisa; Svendby, T.; Dahlback, A.; Bruhwiler, Lori; Laurila, T.; Worthy, D.; Quinn, P. K.; Stohl, A.; Baklanov, A.; Flanner, M. G.; Herber, A.; Kupiainen, K.; Law, K. S.; Schmale, J.; Sharma, S.; Vestreng, V.; Von Salzen, K.; Perovich, Don; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, W.; Nicolaus, M.; Tschudi, M.; Timmermans, Mary Louise; Ashik, I.; Frolov, I.; Ha, H. K.; Ingvaldsen, R.; Kikuchi, T.; Kim, T. W.; Krishfield, R.; Loeng, H.; Nishino, S.; Pickart, R.; Polyakov, I.; Rabe, B.; Schauer, U.; Schlosser, P.; Smethie, W. M.; Sokolov, V.; Steele, M.; Toole, J.; Williams, W.; Woodgate, R.; Zimmerman, S.; Cross, J. N.; Evans, W.; Anderson, L.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.; Derksen, Chris; Brown, R.; Luojus, K.; Sharp, Martin; Wolken, G.; Geai, M. L.; Burgess, D.; Arendt, A.; Wouters, B.; Kohler, J.; Andreassen, L. M.; Tedesco, Marco; Box, J. E.; Cappelen, John; Fettweis, X.; Jensen, T. S.; Mote, Thomas; Rennermalm, A. K.; Smith, L. C.; van de Wal, R. S W; Wahr, John; Duguay, Claude R.; Brown, L. C.; Kang, Kyun Kuk; Kheyrollah Pour, H.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Drozdov, D. S.; Malkova, G. V.; Oberman, N. G.; Kholodov, A. L.; Marchenko, S. S.; Fogt, Ryan L.; Scambos, Ted A.; Clem, Kyle R.; Barreira, Sandra; Colwell, Steve; Keller, Linda M.; Lazzara, Matthew A.; Setzer, Alberto; Bromwich, David H.; Wang, Sheng Hung; Wang, Lei; Liu, Hongxing; Wang, Shujie; Shu, Song; Massom, Robert A.; Reid, Phillip; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Lieser, Jan; Newman, Paul A.; Kramarova, Natalya; Nash, Eric R.; Pitts, Michael C.; Johnson, Bryan; Santee, Michelle L.; Braathen, Geir O.; Campbell, Garret G.; Pope, Allen; Haran, Terry; Sánchez-Lugo, Ahira; Renwick, James A.; Thiaw, Wassila M.; Weaver, Scott J.; Vincent, Lucie A.; Phillips, David; Whitewood, Robert; Crouch, Jake; Heim, R. R.; Fenimore, Chris; Augustine, John; Pascual, R.; Albanil, Adelina; Vazquez, J. L.; Lobato, Rene; Amador, Jorge A.; Alfaro, Eric J.; Hidalgo, Hugo G.; Durán-Quesada, Ana M.; Calderón, Blanca; Rivera, Ingrid L.; Vega, Carla; Stephenson, Tannecia S.; Taylor, Michael A.; Trotman, Adrian R.; Porter, Avalon O.; Gonzalez, Idelmis T.; Spence, Jacqueline M.; McLean, Natalie; Campbell, Jayaka D.; Brown, Glenroy; Butler, Mary; Blenman, Rosalind C.; Aaron-Morrison, Arlene P.; Marcellin-Honore’, Vernie; Martínez, Rodney; Arévalo, Juan; Carrasco, Gualberto; Euscátegui, Christian; Bazo, Juan; Nieto, Juan J.; Zambrano, Eduardo; Marengo, José A.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Espinoza, Jhan C.; Ronchail, Josyane; Bidegain, Mario; Stella, Jose L.; Penalba, Olga C.; Kabidi, Khadija; Sayouri, Amal; Ebrahim, Awatif; James, I. A.; Dekaa, Francis S.; Sima, Fatou; Coulibaly, K. Alama; Gitau, Wilson; Chang’a, L.; Oludhe, Christopher S.; Ogallo, Laban A.; Atheru, Zachary; Ambenje, Peter; Kijazi, Agnes; Ng’ongolo, H.; Luhunga, P.; Levira, Pamela; Kruger, Andries; McBride, Charlotte; Rakotomavo, Zo; Jumaux, Guillaume; Trachte, Katja; Bissolli, Peter; Obregón, Andre; Nitsche, Helga; Parker, David; Kennedy, John J.; Kendon, Michael; Trigo, Ricardo; Barriopedro, David; Ramos, A.; Sensoy, Serhat; Hovhannisyan, Diana; Bulygina, Olga N.; Khoshkam, Mahbobeh; Korshunova, Natalia N.; Oyunjargal, Lamjav; Park, E. Hyung; Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh; Rajeevan, Madhavan; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Revadekar, Jayashree V.; Srivastava, A. K.; Yamada, R.; Zhang, Peiqun; Tanaka, Shotaro; Yoshimatsu, Kazuyoshi; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ganter, Catherine; Macara, Gregor R.; McGree, Simon; Tobin, Skie.

In: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 95, No. 7, 2014, p. S1-S279.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Blunden, J, Arndt, DS, Willett, KM, Dolman, AJ, Hurst, DF, Rennie, J, Thorne, PW, Donat, MG, Dunn, RJH, Long, CS, Christy, JR, Noetzli, J, Christiansen, HH, Gugliemin, M, Romanovsky, VE, Shiklomanov, NI, Smith, SL, Zhao, L, Robinson, DA, Pelto, MS, Mears, CA, Ho, SOB, Peng, L, Wang, J, Vose, RS, Hilburn, K, Yin, X, Kruk, MC, Becker, A, Foster, MJ, Ackerman, SA, Heidinger, AK, Maddux, BC, Stengel, M, Kim, H, Oki, T, Rodell, M, Chambers, DP, Famiglietti, JS, Dorigo, WA, Chung, D, Parinussa, RM, Reimer, C, Hahn, S, Liu, YY, Wagner, WW, de Jeu, RAM, Paulik, C, Wang, G, Allan, R, Folland, CK, Tobin, I, Berrisford, P, Vautard, R, McVicar, TR, Kratz, DP, Stackhouse, PW, Wong, T, Sawaengphokhai, P, Wilber, AC, Gupta, SK, Loeb, NG, Lantz, KO, Dlugokencky, EJ, Hall, BD, Montzka, SA, Dutton, GS, Mühle, J, Elkins, JW, Benedetti, A, Jones, LT, Kaiser, JW, Morcrette, JJ, Rémy, S, Weber, M, Steinbrecht, W, van der A., RJ, Coldewey-Egbers, M, Fioletov, VE, Frith, SM, Loyola, D, Wild, JD, Davis, SM, Rosenlof, KH, Cooper, OR, Ziemke, J, Flemming, J, Inness, A, Quegan, S, Ciais, P, Santoro, M, Pinty, B, Gobron, N, van der Werf, GR, Newlin, ML, Gregg, MC, Xue, Y, Hu, ZZ, Kumar, A, Banzon, V, Smith, TM, Rayner, NA, Johnson, GC, Lyman, JM, Willis, JK, Boyer, T, Antonov, J, Good, SA, Domingues, CM, Bindoff, N, Yu, L, Jin, X, Lagerloef, GSE, Kao, HY, Reagan, J, Schmid, C, Locarnini, R, Lumpkin, R, Goni, G, Dohan, K, Baringer, MO, McCarthy, G, Lankhorst, M, Smeed, DA, Send, U, Rayner, D, Johns, WE, Meinen, CS, Cunningham, SA, Kanzow, TO, Frajka-Williams, E, Marotzke, J, Garzoli, S, Dong, S, Volkov, D, Hobbs, WR, Merrifield, MA, Thompson, P, Leuliette, E, Nerem, RS, Hamlington, B, Mitchum, GT, McInnes, K, Marra, JJ, Menéndez, M, Sweet, W, Feely, RA, Wanninkhof, R, Sabine, CL, Mathis, JT, Takahashi, T, Khatiwala, S, Franz, BA, Behrenfeld, MJ, Siegel, DA, Werdell, PJ, Diamond, HJ, Bell, GD, L’Heureux, M, Halpert, MS, Baxter, S, Gottschalck, J, Landsea, CW, Goldenberg, SB, Pasch, RJ, Blake, ES, Schemm, J, Kimberlain, TB, Schreck, CJ, Evans, TE, Camargo, SJ, Gleason, KL, Trewin, BC, Lorrey, AM, Fauchereau, NC, Chappell, PR, Ready, S, Goni, GJ, Knaff, JA, Lin, II, Wang, B, Mullan, AB, Pezza, AB, Coelho, CAS, Wang, C, Fogarty, CT, Klotzbach, P, Luo, JJ, Lander, MA, Guard, CPC, Jeffries, MO, Richter-Menge, J, Overland, J, Key, J, Hanna, E, Hanssen-Bauer, I, Kim, BM, Kim, SJ, Walsh, J, Wang, M, Bhatt, US, Liu, Y, Stone, R, Cox, C, Walden, V, Francis, J, Vavrus, S, Tang, Q, Bernhard, G, Manney, G, Grooß, JU, Müller, R, Heikkilä, A, Johnsen, B, Koskela, T, Lakkala, K, Svendby, T, Dahlback, A, Bruhwiler, L, Laurila, T, Worthy, D, Quinn, PK, Stohl, A, Baklanov, A, Flanner, MG, Herber, A, Kupiainen, K, Law, KS, Schmale, J, Sharma, S, Vestreng, V, Von Salzen, K, Perovich, D, Gerland, S, Hendricks, S, Meier, W, Nicolaus, M, Tschudi, M, Timmermans, ML, Ashik, I, Frolov, I, Ha, HK, Ingvaldsen, R, Kikuchi, T, Kim, TW, Krishfield, R, Loeng, H, Nishino, S, Pickart, R, Polyakov, I, Rabe, B, Schauer, U, Schlosser, P, Smethie, WM, Sokolov, V, Steele, M, Toole, J, Williams, W, Woodgate, R, Zimmerman, S, Cross, JN, Evans, W, Anderson, L, Yamamoto-Kawai, M, Derksen, C, Brown, R, Luojus, K, Sharp, M, Wolken, G, Geai, ML, Burgess, D, Arendt, A, Wouters, B, Kohler, J, Andreassen, LM, Tedesco, M, Box, JE, Cappelen, J, Fettweis, X, Jensen, TS, Mote, T, Rennermalm, AK, Smith, LC, van de Wal, RSW, Wahr, J, Duguay, CR, Brown, LC, Kang, KK, Kheyrollah Pour, H, Streletskiy, DA, Drozdov, DS, Malkova, GV, Oberman, NG, Kholodov, AL, Marchenko, SS, Fogt, RL, Scambos, TA, Clem, KR, Barreira, S, Colwell, S, Keller, LM, Lazzara, MA, Setzer, A, Bromwich, DH, Wang, SH, Wang, L, Liu, H, Wang, S, Shu, S, Massom, RA, Reid, P, Stammerjohn, S, Lieser, J, Newman, PA, Kramarova, N, Nash, ER, Pitts, MC, Johnson, B, Santee, ML, Braathen, GO, Campbell, GG, Pope, A, Haran, T, Sánchez-Lugo, A, Renwick, JA, Thiaw, WM, Weaver, SJ, Vincent, LA, Phillips, D, Whitewood, R, Crouch, J, Heim, RR, Fenimore, C, Augustine, J, Pascual, R, Albanil, A, Vazquez, JL, Lobato, R, Amador, JA, Alfaro, EJ, Hidalgo, HG, Durán-Quesada, AM, Calderón, B, Rivera, IL, Vega, C, Stephenson, TS, Taylor, MA, Trotman, AR, Porter, AO, Gonzalez, IT, Spence, JM, McLean, N, Campbell, JD, Brown, G, Butler, M, Blenman, RC, Aaron-Morrison, AP, Marcellin-Honore’, V, Martínez, R, Arévalo, J, Carrasco, G, Euscátegui, C, Bazo, J, Nieto, JJ, Zambrano, E, Marengo, JA, Alves, LM, Espinoza, JC, Ronchail, J, Bidegain, M, Stella, JL, Penalba, OC, Kabidi, K, Sayouri, A, Ebrahim, A, James, IA, Dekaa, FS, Sima, F, Coulibaly, KA, Gitau, W, Chang’a, L, Oludhe, CS, Ogallo, LA, Atheru, Z, Ambenje, P, Kijazi, A, Ng’ongolo, H, Luhunga, P, Levira, P, Kruger, A, McBride, C, Rakotomavo, Z, Jumaux, G, Trachte, K, Bissolli, P, Obregón, A, Nitsche, H, Parker, D, Kennedy, JJ, Kendon, M, Trigo, R, Barriopedro, D, Ramos, A, Sensoy, S, Hovhannisyan, D, Bulygina, ON, Khoshkam, M, Korshunova, NN, Oyunjargal, L, Park, EH, Rahimzadeh, F, Rajeevan, M, Razuvaev, VN, Revadekar, JV, Srivastava, AK, Yamada, R, Zhang, P, Tanaka, S, Yoshimatsu, K, Ohno, H, Ganter, C, Macara, GR, McGree, S & Tobin, S 2014, 'State of the climate in 2013', Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. S1-S279. https://doi.org/10.1175/2014BAMSStateoftheClimate.1
Blunden J, Arndt DS, Willett KM, Dolman AJ, Hurst DF, Rennie J et al. State of the climate in 2013. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2014;95(7):S1-S279. https://doi.org/10.1175/2014BAMSStateoftheClimate.1
Blunden, Jessica ; Arndt, Derek S. ; Willett, Kate M. ; Dolman, A. Johannes ; Hurst, Dale F. ; Rennie, Jared ; Thorne, Peter W. ; Donat, Markus G. ; Dunn, Robert J H ; Long, Craig S. ; Christy, John R. ; Noetzli, Jeannette ; Christiansen, Hanne H. ; Gugliemin, Mauro ; Romanovsky, Vladimir E. ; Shiklomanov, Nicolai I. ; Smith, Sharon L. ; Zhao, Lin ; Robinson, David A. ; Pelto, Mauri S. ; Mears, Carl A. ; Ho, Shu Oeng Ben ; Peng, Liang ; Wang, Junhong ; Vose, Russell S. ; Hilburn, Kyle ; Yin, Xungang ; Kruk, Michael C. ; Becker, Andreas ; Foster, Michael J. ; Ackerman, Steven A. ; Heidinger, Andrew K. ; Maddux, Brent C. ; Stengel, M. ; Kim, Hyuanjun ; Oki, Taikan ; Rodell, Matthew ; Chambers, Don P. ; Famiglietti, James S. ; Dorigo, Wouter A. ; Chung, D. ; Parinussa, Robert M. ; Reimer, C. ; Hahn, S. ; Liu, Y. Y. ; Wagner, Wolfgang W. ; de Jeu, Rochard A M ; Paulik, C. ; Wang, Guojie ; Allan, Rob ; Folland, Chris K. ; Tobin, Isabelle ; Berrisford, Paul ; Vautard, Robert ; McVicar, Tim R. ; Kratz, David P. ; Stackhouse, Paul W. ; Wong, Takmeng ; Sawaengphokhai, P. ; Wilber, Anne C. ; Gupta, Shashi K. ; Loeb, Norman G. ; Lantz, Kathy O. ; Dlugokencky, Ed J. ; Hall, Bradley D. ; Montzka, Stephen A. ; Dutton, Geoff S. ; Mühle, Jens ; Elkins, James W. ; Benedetti, Angela ; Jones, Luke T. ; Kaiser, Johannes W. ; Morcrette, Jean Jacques ; Rémy, Samuel ; Weber, Mark ; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang ; van der A., Ronald J. ; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie ; Fioletov, Vitali E. ; Frith, Stacey M. ; Loyola, Diego ; Wild, Jeannette D. ; Davis, Sean M. ; Rosenlof, Karen H. ; Cooper, Owen R. ; Ziemke, Jerry ; Flemming, Johannes ; Inness, Antje ; Quegan, Shaun ; Ciais, Phillipe ; Santoro, M. ; Pinty, Bernard ; Gobron, Nadine ; van der Werf, Guido R. ; Newlin, Michele L. ; Gregg, Margarita C. ; Xue, Yan ; Hu, Zeng Zhen ; Kumar, Arun ; Banzon, Viva ; Smith, Thomas M. ; Rayner, Nick A. ; Johnson, Gregory C. ; Lyman, John M. ; Willis, Joshua K. ; Boyer, Tim ; Antonov, John ; Good, Simon A. ; Domingues, Catia M. ; Bindoff, Nathan ; Yu, Lisan ; Jin, Xiangze ; Lagerloef, G. S E ; Kao, Hsun Ying ; Reagan, James ; Schmid, Claudia ; Locarnini, Ricardo ; Lumpkin, Rick ; Goni, Gustavo ; Dohan, Kathleen ; Baringer, Molly O. ; McCarthy, Gerard ; Lankhorst, Matthias ; Smeed, David A. ; Send, Uwe ; Rayner, Darren ; Johns, William E ; Meinen, Christopher S. ; Cunningham, Stuart A. ; Kanzow, Torsten O. ; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor ; Marotzke, Jochem ; Garzoli, Silvia ; Dong, Shenfu ; Volkov, Denis ; Hobbs, Will R. ; Merrifield, Mark A. ; Thompson, Philip ; Leuliette, Eric ; Nerem, R. Steven ; Hamlington, Ben ; Mitchum, Gary T. ; McInnes, Kathleen ; Marra, John J. ; Menéndez, Melisa ; Sweet, William ; Feely, Richard A. ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Sabine, Christopher L. ; Mathis, Jeremy T. ; Takahashi, Taro ; Khatiwala, Samar ; Franz, Bryan A. ; Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Siegel, David A. ; Werdell, P. Jeremy ; Diamond, Howard J. ; Bell, Gerald D. ; L’Heureux, Michelle ; Halpert, Michael S. ; Baxter, Stephen ; Gottschalck, Jonathan ; Landsea, Chris W. ; Goldenberg, Stanley B. ; Pasch, Richard J. ; Blake, Eric S. ; Schemm, Jae ; Kimberlain, Todd B. ; Schreck, Carl J. ; Evans, Thomas E. ; Camargo, Suzana J. ; Gleason, Karin L. ; Trewin, Blair C. ; Lorrey, Andrew M. ; Fauchereau, Nicolas C. ; Chappell, Petra R. ; Ready, Steve ; Goni, Gustavo J. ; Knaff, John A. ; Lin, I. I. ; Wang, Bin ; Mullan, A. Brett ; Pezza, Alexandre B. ; Coelho, Caio A S ; Wang, Chunzai ; Fogarty, Chris T. ; Klotzbach, Philip ; Luo, Jing Jia ; Lander, Mark A. ; Guard, Charles P Chip ; Jeffries, Martin O. ; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline ; Overland, James ; Key, Jeff ; Hanna, E. ; Hanssen-Bauer, I. ; Kim, B. M. ; Kim, S. J. ; Walsh, J. ; Wang, M. ; Bhatt, U. S. ; Liu, Yinghui ; Stone, R. ; Cox, C. ; Walden, V. ; Francis, Jennifer ; Vavrus, S. ; Tang, Q. ; Bernhard, Germar ; Manney, Gloria ; Grooß, Jnes Uwe ; Müller, Rolf ; Heikkilä, Anu ; Johnsen, Bjorn ; Koskela, Tapani ; Lakkala, Kaisa ; Svendby, T. ; Dahlback, A. ; Bruhwiler, Lori ; Laurila, T. ; Worthy, D. ; Quinn, P. K. ; Stohl, A. ; Baklanov, A. ; Flanner, M. G. ; Herber, A. ; Kupiainen, K. ; Law, K. S. ; Schmale, J. ; Sharma, S. ; Vestreng, V. ; Von Salzen, K. ; Perovich, Don ; Gerland, S. ; Hendricks, S. ; Meier, W. ; Nicolaus, M. ; Tschudi, M. ; Timmermans, Mary Louise ; Ashik, I. ; Frolov, I. ; Ha, H. K. ; Ingvaldsen, R. ; Kikuchi, T. ; Kim, T. W. ; Krishfield, R. ; Loeng, H. ; Nishino, S. ; Pickart, R. ; Polyakov, I. ; Rabe, B. ; Schauer, U. ; Schlosser, P. ; Smethie, W. M. ; Sokolov, V. ; Steele, M. ; Toole, J. ; Williams, W. ; Woodgate, R. ; Zimmerman, S. ; Cross, J. N. ; Evans, W. ; Anderson, L. ; Yamamoto-Kawai, M. ; Derksen, Chris ; Brown, R. ; Luojus, K. ; Sharp, Martin ; Wolken, G. ; Geai, M. L. ; Burgess, D. ; Arendt, A. ; Wouters, B. ; Kohler, J. ; Andreassen, L. M. ; Tedesco, Marco ; Box, J. E. ; Cappelen, John ; Fettweis, X. ; Jensen, T. S. ; Mote, Thomas ; Rennermalm, A. K. ; Smith, L. C. ; van de Wal, R. S W ; Wahr, John ; Duguay, Claude R. ; Brown, L. C. ; Kang, Kyun Kuk ; Kheyrollah Pour, H. ; Streletskiy, D. A. ; Drozdov, D. S. ; Malkova, G. V. ; Oberman, N. G. ; Kholodov, A. L. ; Marchenko, S. S. ; Fogt, Ryan L. ; Scambos, Ted A. ; Clem, Kyle R. ; Barreira, Sandra ; Colwell, Steve ; Keller, Linda M. ; Lazzara, Matthew A. ; Setzer, Alberto ; Bromwich, David H. ; Wang, Sheng Hung ; Wang, Lei ; Liu, Hongxing ; Wang, Shujie ; Shu, Song ; Massom, Robert A. ; Reid, Phillip ; Stammerjohn, Sharon ; Lieser, Jan ; Newman, Paul A. ; Kramarova, Natalya ; Nash, Eric R. ; Pitts, Michael C. ; Johnson, Bryan ; Santee, Michelle L. ; Braathen, Geir O. ; Campbell, Garret G. ; Pope, Allen ; Haran, Terry ; Sánchez-Lugo, Ahira ; Renwick, James A. ; Thiaw, Wassila M. ; Weaver, Scott J. ; Vincent, Lucie A. ; Phillips, David ; Whitewood, Robert ; Crouch, Jake ; Heim, R. R. ; Fenimore, Chris ; Augustine, John ; Pascual, R. ; Albanil, Adelina ; Vazquez, J. L. ; Lobato, Rene ; Amador, Jorge A. ; Alfaro, Eric J. ; Hidalgo, Hugo G. ; Durán-Quesada, Ana M. ; Calderón, Blanca ; Rivera, Ingrid L. ; Vega, Carla ; Stephenson, Tannecia S. ; Taylor, Michael A. ; Trotman, Adrian R. ; Porter, Avalon O. ; Gonzalez, Idelmis T. ; Spence, Jacqueline M. ; McLean, Natalie ; Campbell, Jayaka D. ; Brown, Glenroy ; Butler, Mary ; Blenman, Rosalind C. ; Aaron-Morrison, Arlene P. ; Marcellin-Honore’, Vernie ; Martínez, Rodney ; Arévalo, Juan ; Carrasco, Gualberto ; Euscátegui, Christian ; Bazo, Juan ; Nieto, Juan J. ; Zambrano, Eduardo ; Marengo, José A. ; Alves, Lincoln M. ; Espinoza, Jhan C. ; Ronchail, Josyane ; Bidegain, Mario ; Stella, Jose L. ; Penalba, Olga C. ; Kabidi, Khadija ; Sayouri, Amal ; Ebrahim, Awatif ; James, I. A. ; Dekaa, Francis S. ; Sima, Fatou ; Coulibaly, K. Alama ; Gitau, Wilson ; Chang’a, L. ; Oludhe, Christopher S. ; Ogallo, Laban A. ; Atheru, Zachary ; Ambenje, Peter ; Kijazi, Agnes ; Ng’ongolo, H. ; Luhunga, P. ; Levira, Pamela ; Kruger, Andries ; McBride, Charlotte ; Rakotomavo, Zo ; Jumaux, Guillaume ; Trachte, Katja ; Bissolli, Peter ; Obregón, Andre ; Nitsche, Helga ; Parker, David ; Kennedy, John J. ; Kendon, Michael ; Trigo, Ricardo ; Barriopedro, David ; Ramos, A. ; Sensoy, Serhat ; Hovhannisyan, Diana ; Bulygina, Olga N. ; Khoshkam, Mahbobeh ; Korshunova, Natalia N. ; Oyunjargal, Lamjav ; Park, E. Hyung ; Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh ; Rajeevan, Madhavan ; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N. ; Revadekar, Jayashree V. ; Srivastava, A. K. ; Yamada, R. ; Zhang, Peiqun ; Tanaka, Shotaro ; Yoshimatsu, Kazuyoshi ; Ohno, Hiroshi ; Ganter, Catherine ; Macara, Gregor R. ; McGree, Simon ; Tobin, Skie. / State of the climate in 2013. In: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2014 ; Vol. 95, No. 7. pp. S1-S279.
@article{9084ce1045d54a00afdfd8915c3bf314,
title = "State of the climate in 2013",
abstract = "In 2013, the vast majority of the monitored climate variables reported here maintained trends established in recent decades. ENSO was in a neutral state during the entire year, remaining mostly on the cool side of neutral with modest impacts on regional weather patterns around the world. This follows several years dominated by the effects of either La Ni{\~n}a or El Ni{\~n}o events. According to several independent analyses, 2013 was again among the 10 warmest years on record at the global scale, both at the Earth’s surface and through the troposphere. Some regions in the Southern Hemisphere had record or near-record high temperatures for the year. Australia observed its hottest year on record, while Argentina and New Zealand reported their second and third hottest years, respectively. In Antarctica, Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station reported its highest annual temperature since records began in 1957. At the opposite pole, the Arctic observed its seventh warmest year since records began in the early 20th century. At 20-m depth, record high temperatures were measured at some permafrost stations on the North Slope of Alaska and in the Brooks Range. In the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, anomalous meridional atmospheric circulation occurred throughout much of the year, leading to marked regional extremes of both temperature and precipitation. Cold temperature anomalies during winter across Eurasia were followed by warm spring temperature anomalies, which were linked to a new record low Eurasian snow cover extent in May. Minimum sea ice extent in the Arctic was the sixth lowest since satellite observations began in 1979. Including 2013, all seven lowest extents on record have occurred in the past seven years. Antarctica, on the other hand, had above-average sea ice extent throughout 2013, with 116 days of new daily high extent records, including a new daily maximum sea ice area of 19.57 million km2 reached on 1 October. ENSO-neutral conditions in the eastern central Pacific Ocean and a negative Pacific decadal oscillation pattern in the North Pacific had the largest impacts on the global sea surface temperature in 2013. The North Pacific reached a historic high temperature in 2013 and on balance the globally-averaged sea surface temperature was among the 10 highest on record. Overall, the salt content in nearsurface ocean waters increased while in intermediate waters it decreased. Global mean sea level continued to rise during 2013, on pace with a trend of 3.2 mm yr-1 over the past two decades. A portion of this trend (0.5 mm yr-1) has been attributed to natural variability associated with the Pacific decadal oscillation as well as to ongoing contributions from the melting of glaciers and ice sheets and ocean warming. Global tropical cyclone frequency during 2013 was slightly above average with a total of 94 storms, although the North Atlantic Basin had its quietest hurricane season since 1994. In the Western North Pacific Basin, Super Typhoon Haiyan, the deadliest tropical cyclone of 2013, had 1-minute sustained winds estimated to be 170 kt (87.5 m s-1) on 7 November, the highest wind speed ever assigned to a tropical cyclone. High storm surge was also associated with Haiyan as it made landfall over the central Philippines, an area where sea level is currently at historic highs, increasing by 200 mm since 1970. In the atmosphere, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide all continued to increase in 2013. As in previous years, each of these major greenhouse gases once again reached historic high concentrations. In the Arctic, carbon dioxide and methane increased at the same rate as the global increase. These increases are likely due to export from lower latitudes rather than a consequence of increases in Arctic sources, such as thawing permafrost. At Mauna Loa, Hawaii, for the first time since measurements began in 1958, the daily average mixing ratio of carbon dioxide exceeded 400 ppm on 9 May. The state of these variables, along with dozens of others, and the 2013 climate conditions of regions around the world are discussed in further detail in this 24th edition of the State of the Climate series.",
author = "Jessica Blunden and Arndt, {Derek S.} and Willett, {Kate M.} and Dolman, {A. Johannes} and Hurst, {Dale F.} and Jared Rennie and Thorne, {Peter W.} and Donat, {Markus G.} and Dunn, {Robert J H} and Long, {Craig S.} and Christy, {John R.} and Jeannette Noetzli and Christiansen, {Hanne H.} and Mauro Gugliemin and Romanovsky, {Vladimir E.} and Shiklomanov, {Nicolai I.} and Smith, {Sharon L.} and Lin Zhao and Robinson, {David A.} and Pelto, {Mauri S.} and Mears, {Carl A.} and Ho, {Shu Oeng Ben} and Liang Peng and Junhong Wang and Vose, {Russell S.} and Kyle Hilburn and Xungang Yin and Kruk, {Michael C.} and Andreas Becker and Foster, {Michael J.} and Ackerman, {Steven A.} and Heidinger, {Andrew K.} and Maddux, {Brent C.} and M. Stengel and Hyuanjun Kim and Taikan Oki and Matthew Rodell and Chambers, {Don P.} and Famiglietti, {James S.} and Dorigo, {Wouter A.} and D. Chung and Parinussa, {Robert M.} and C. Reimer and S. Hahn and Liu, {Y. Y.} and Wagner, {Wolfgang W.} and {de Jeu}, {Rochard A M} and C. Paulik and Guojie Wang and Rob Allan and Folland, {Chris K.} and Isabelle Tobin and Paul Berrisford and Robert Vautard and McVicar, {Tim R.} and Kratz, {David P.} and Stackhouse, {Paul W.} and Takmeng Wong and P. Sawaengphokhai and Wilber, {Anne C.} and Gupta, {Shashi K.} and Loeb, {Norman G.} and Lantz, {Kathy O.} and Dlugokencky, {Ed J.} and Hall, {Bradley D.} and Montzka, {Stephen A.} and Dutton, {Geoff S.} and Jens M{\"u}hle and Elkins, {James W.} and Angela Benedetti and Jones, {Luke T.} and Kaiser, {Johannes W.} and Morcrette, {Jean Jacques} and Samuel R{\'e}my and Mark Weber and Wolfgang Steinbrecht and {van der A.}, {Ronald J.} and Melanie Coldewey-Egbers and Fioletov, {Vitali E.} and Frith, {Stacey M.} and Diego Loyola and Wild, {Jeannette D.} and Davis, {Sean M.} and Rosenlof, {Karen H.} and Cooper, {Owen R.} and Jerry Ziemke and Johannes Flemming and Antje Inness and Shaun Quegan and Phillipe Ciais and M. Santoro and Bernard Pinty and Nadine Gobron and {van der Werf}, {Guido R.} and Newlin, {Michele L.} and Gregg, {Margarita C.} and Yan Xue and Hu, {Zeng Zhen} and Arun Kumar and Viva Banzon and Smith, {Thomas M.} and Rayner, {Nick A.} and Johnson, {Gregory C.} and Lyman, {John M.} and Willis, {Joshua K.} and Tim Boyer and John Antonov and Good, {Simon A.} and Domingues, {Catia M.} and Nathan Bindoff and Lisan Yu and Xiangze Jin and Lagerloef, {G. S E} and Kao, {Hsun Ying} and James Reagan and Claudia Schmid and Ricardo Locarnini and Rick Lumpkin and Gustavo Goni and Kathleen Dohan and Baringer, {Molly O.} and Gerard McCarthy and Matthias Lankhorst and Smeed, {David A.} and Uwe Send and Darren Rayner and Johns, {William E} and Meinen, {Christopher S.} and Cunningham, {Stuart A.} and Kanzow, {Torsten O.} and Eleanor Frajka-Williams and Jochem Marotzke and Silvia Garzoli and Shenfu Dong and Denis Volkov and Hobbs, {Will R.} and Merrifield, {Mark A.} and Philip Thompson and Eric Leuliette and Nerem, {R. Steven} and Ben Hamlington and Mitchum, {Gary T.} and Kathleen McInnes and Marra, {John J.} and Melisa Men{\'e}ndez and William Sweet and Feely, {Richard A.} and Rik Wanninkhof and Sabine, {Christopher L.} and Mathis, {Jeremy T.} and Taro Takahashi and Samar Khatiwala and Franz, {Bryan A.} and Behrenfeld, {Michael J.} and Siegel, {David A.} and Werdell, {P. Jeremy} and Diamond, {Howard J.} and Bell, {Gerald D.} and Michelle L’Heureux and Halpert, {Michael S.} and Stephen Baxter and Jonathan Gottschalck and Landsea, {Chris W.} and Goldenberg, {Stanley B.} and Pasch, {Richard J.} and Blake, {Eric S.} and Jae Schemm and Kimberlain, {Todd B.} and Schreck, {Carl J.} and Evans, {Thomas E.} and Camargo, {Suzana J.} and Gleason, {Karin L.} and Trewin, {Blair C.} and Lorrey, {Andrew M.} and Fauchereau, {Nicolas C.} and Chappell, {Petra R.} and Steve Ready and Goni, {Gustavo J.} and Knaff, {John A.} and Lin, {I. I.} and Bin Wang and Mullan, {A. Brett} and Pezza, {Alexandre B.} and Coelho, {Caio A S} and Chunzai Wang and Fogarty, {Chris T.} and Philip Klotzbach and Luo, {Jing Jia} and Lander, {Mark A.} and Guard, {Charles P Chip} and Jeffries, {Martin O.} and Jacqueline Richter-Menge and James Overland and Jeff Key and E. Hanna and I. Hanssen-Bauer and Kim, {B. M.} and Kim, {S. J.} and J. Walsh and M. Wang and Bhatt, {U. S.} and Yinghui Liu and R. Stone and C. Cox and V. Walden and Jennifer Francis and S. Vavrus and Q. Tang and Germar Bernhard and Gloria Manney and Groo{\ss}, {Jnes Uwe} and Rolf M{\"u}ller and Anu Heikkil{\"a} and Bjorn Johnsen and Tapani Koskela and Kaisa Lakkala and T. Svendby and A. Dahlback and Lori Bruhwiler and T. Laurila and D. Worthy and Quinn, {P. K.} and A. Stohl and A. Baklanov and Flanner, {M. G.} and A. Herber and K. Kupiainen and Law, {K. S.} and J. Schmale and S. Sharma and V. Vestreng and {Von Salzen}, K. and Don Perovich and S. Gerland and S. Hendricks and W. Meier and M. Nicolaus and M. Tschudi and Timmermans, {Mary Louise} and I. Ashik and I. Frolov and Ha, {H. K.} and R. Ingvaldsen and T. Kikuchi and Kim, {T. W.} and R. Krishfield and H. Loeng and S. Nishino and R. Pickart and I. Polyakov and B. Rabe and U. Schauer and P. Schlosser and Smethie, {W. M.} and V. Sokolov and M. Steele and J. Toole and W. Williams and R. Woodgate and S. Zimmerman and Cross, {J. N.} and W. Evans and L. Anderson and M. Yamamoto-Kawai and Chris Derksen and R. Brown and K. Luojus and Martin Sharp and G. Wolken and Geai, {M. L.} and D. Burgess and A. Arendt and B. Wouters and J. Kohler and Andreassen, {L. M.} and Marco Tedesco and Box, {J. E.} and John Cappelen and X. Fettweis and Jensen, {T. S.} and Thomas Mote and Rennermalm, {A. K.} and Smith, {L. C.} and {van de Wal}, {R. S W} and John Wahr and Duguay, {Claude R.} and Brown, {L. C.} and Kang, {Kyun Kuk} and {Kheyrollah Pour}, H. and Streletskiy, {D. A.} and Drozdov, {D. S.} and Malkova, {G. V.} and Oberman, {N. G.} and Kholodov, {A. L.} and Marchenko, {S. S.} and Fogt, {Ryan L.} and Scambos, {Ted A.} and Clem, {Kyle R.} and Sandra Barreira and Steve Colwell and Keller, {Linda M.} and Lazzara, {Matthew A.} and Alberto Setzer and Bromwich, {David H.} and Wang, {Sheng Hung} and Lei Wang and Hongxing Liu and Shujie Wang and Song Shu and Massom, {Robert A.} and Phillip Reid and Sharon Stammerjohn and Jan Lieser and Newman, {Paul A.} and Natalya Kramarova and Nash, {Eric R.} and Pitts, {Michael C.} and Bryan Johnson and Santee, {Michelle L.} and Braathen, {Geir O.} and Campbell, {Garret G.} and Allen Pope and Terry Haran and Ahira S{\'a}nchez-Lugo and Renwick, {James A.} and Thiaw, {Wassila M.} and Weaver, {Scott J.} and Vincent, {Lucie A.} and David Phillips and Robert Whitewood and Jake Crouch and Heim, {R. R.} and Chris Fenimore and John Augustine and R. Pascual and Adelina Albanil and Vazquez, {J. L.} and Rene Lobato and Amador, {Jorge A.} and Alfaro, {Eric J.} and Hidalgo, {Hugo G.} and Dur{\'a}n-Quesada, {Ana M.} and Blanca Calder{\'o}n and Rivera, {Ingrid L.} and Carla Vega and Stephenson, {Tannecia S.} and Taylor, {Michael A.} and Trotman, {Adrian R.} and Porter, {Avalon O.} and Gonzalez, {Idelmis T.} and Spence, {Jacqueline M.} and Natalie McLean and Campbell, {Jayaka D.} and Glenroy Brown and Mary Butler and Blenman, {Rosalind C.} and Aaron-Morrison, {Arlene P.} and Vernie Marcellin-Honore’ and Rodney Mart{\'i}nez and Juan Ar{\'e}valo and Gualberto Carrasco and Christian Eusc{\'a}tegui and Juan Bazo and Nieto, {Juan J.} and Eduardo Zambrano and Marengo, {Jos{\'e} A.} and Alves, {Lincoln M.} and Espinoza, {Jhan C.} and Josyane Ronchail and Mario Bidegain and Stella, {Jose L.} and Penalba, {Olga C.} and Khadija Kabidi and Amal Sayouri and Awatif Ebrahim and James, {I. A.} and Dekaa, {Francis S.} and Fatou Sima and Coulibaly, {K. Alama} and Wilson Gitau and L. Chang’a and Oludhe, {Christopher S.} and Ogallo, {Laban A.} and Zachary Atheru and Peter Ambenje and Agnes Kijazi and H. Ng’ongolo and P. Luhunga and Pamela Levira and Andries Kruger and Charlotte McBride and Zo Rakotomavo and Guillaume Jumaux and Katja Trachte and Peter Bissolli and Andre Obreg{\'o}n and Helga Nitsche and David Parker and Kennedy, {John J.} and Michael Kendon and Ricardo Trigo and David Barriopedro and A. Ramos and Serhat Sensoy and Diana Hovhannisyan and Bulygina, {Olga N.} and Mahbobeh Khoshkam and Korshunova, {Natalia N.} and Lamjav Oyunjargal and Park, {E. Hyung} and Fatemeh Rahimzadeh and Madhavan Rajeevan and Razuvaev, {Vyacheslav N.} and Revadekar, {Jayashree V.} and Srivastava, {A. K.} and R. Yamada and Peiqun Zhang and Shotaro Tanaka and Kazuyoshi Yoshimatsu and Hiroshi Ohno and Catherine Ganter and Macara, {Gregor R.} and Simon McGree and Skie Tobin",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1175/2014BAMSStateoftheClimate.1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "95",
pages = "S1--S279",
journal = "Earth Interactions",
issn = "0003-0007",
publisher = "American Meteorological Society",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - State of the climate in 2013

AU - Blunden, Jessica

AU - Arndt, Derek S.

AU - Willett, Kate M.

AU - Dolman, A. Johannes

AU - Hurst, Dale F.

AU - Rennie, Jared

AU - Thorne, Peter W.

AU - Donat, Markus G.

AU - Dunn, Robert J H

AU - Long, Craig S.

AU - Christy, John R.

AU - Noetzli, Jeannette

AU - Christiansen, Hanne H.

AU - Gugliemin, Mauro

AU - Romanovsky, Vladimir E.

AU - Shiklomanov, Nicolai I.

AU - Smith, Sharon L.

AU - Zhao, Lin

AU - Robinson, David A.

AU - Pelto, Mauri S.

AU - Mears, Carl A.

AU - Ho, Shu Oeng Ben

AU - Peng, Liang

AU - Wang, Junhong

AU - Vose, Russell S.

AU - Hilburn, Kyle

AU - Yin, Xungang

AU - Kruk, Michael C.

AU - Becker, Andreas

AU - Foster, Michael J.

AU - Ackerman, Steven A.

AU - Heidinger, Andrew K.

AU - Maddux, Brent C.

AU - Stengel, M.

AU - Kim, Hyuanjun

AU - Oki, Taikan

AU - Rodell, Matthew

AU - Chambers, Don P.

AU - Famiglietti, James S.

AU - Dorigo, Wouter A.

AU - Chung, D.

AU - Parinussa, Robert M.

AU - Reimer, C.

AU - Hahn, S.

AU - Liu, Y. Y.

AU - Wagner, Wolfgang W.

AU - de Jeu, Rochard A M

AU - Paulik, C.

AU - Wang, Guojie

AU - Allan, Rob

AU - Folland, Chris K.

AU - Tobin, Isabelle

AU - Berrisford, Paul

AU - Vautard, Robert

AU - McVicar, Tim R.

AU - Kratz, David P.

AU - Stackhouse, Paul W.

AU - Wong, Takmeng

AU - Sawaengphokhai, P.

AU - Wilber, Anne C.

AU - Gupta, Shashi K.

AU - Loeb, Norman G.

AU - Lantz, Kathy O.

AU - Dlugokencky, Ed J.

AU - Hall, Bradley D.

AU - Montzka, Stephen A.

AU - Dutton, Geoff S.

AU - Mühle, Jens

AU - Elkins, James W.

AU - Benedetti, Angela

AU - Jones, Luke T.

AU - Kaiser, Johannes W.

AU - Morcrette, Jean Jacques

AU - Rémy, Samuel

AU - Weber, Mark

AU - Steinbrecht, Wolfgang

AU - van der A., Ronald J.

AU - Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie

AU - Fioletov, Vitali E.

AU - Frith, Stacey M.

AU - Loyola, Diego

AU - Wild, Jeannette D.

AU - Davis, Sean M.

AU - Rosenlof, Karen H.

AU - Cooper, Owen R.

AU - Ziemke, Jerry

AU - Flemming, Johannes

AU - Inness, Antje

AU - Quegan, Shaun

AU - Ciais, Phillipe

AU - Santoro, M.

AU - Pinty, Bernard

AU - Gobron, Nadine

AU - van der Werf, Guido R.

AU - Newlin, Michele L.

AU - Gregg, Margarita C.

AU - Xue, Yan

AU - Hu, Zeng Zhen

AU - Kumar, Arun

AU - Banzon, Viva

AU - Smith, Thomas M.

AU - Rayner, Nick A.

AU - Johnson, Gregory C.

AU - Lyman, John M.

AU - Willis, Joshua K.

AU - Boyer, Tim

AU - Antonov, John

AU - Good, Simon A.

AU - Domingues, Catia M.

AU - Bindoff, Nathan

AU - Yu, Lisan

AU - Jin, Xiangze

AU - Lagerloef, G. S E

AU - Kao, Hsun Ying

AU - Reagan, James

AU - Schmid, Claudia

AU - Locarnini, Ricardo

AU - Lumpkin, Rick

AU - Goni, Gustavo

AU - Dohan, Kathleen

AU - Baringer, Molly O.

AU - McCarthy, Gerard

AU - Lankhorst, Matthias

AU - Smeed, David A.

AU - Send, Uwe

AU - Rayner, Darren

AU - Johns, William E

AU - Meinen, Christopher S.

AU - Cunningham, Stuart A.

AU - Kanzow, Torsten O.

AU - Frajka-Williams, Eleanor

AU - Marotzke, Jochem

AU - Garzoli, Silvia

AU - Dong, Shenfu

AU - Volkov, Denis

AU - Hobbs, Will R.

AU - Merrifield, Mark A.

AU - Thompson, Philip

AU - Leuliette, Eric

AU - Nerem, R. Steven

AU - Hamlington, Ben

AU - Mitchum, Gary T.

AU - McInnes, Kathleen

AU - Marra, John J.

AU - Menéndez, Melisa

AU - Sweet, William

AU - Feely, Richard A.

AU - Wanninkhof, Rik

AU - Sabine, Christopher L.

AU - Mathis, Jeremy T.

AU - Takahashi, Taro

AU - Khatiwala, Samar

AU - Franz, Bryan A.

AU - Behrenfeld, Michael J.

AU - Siegel, David A.

AU - Werdell, P. Jeremy

AU - Diamond, Howard J.

AU - Bell, Gerald D.

AU - L’Heureux, Michelle

AU - Halpert, Michael S.

AU - Baxter, Stephen

AU - Gottschalck, Jonathan

AU - Landsea, Chris W.

AU - Goldenberg, Stanley B.

AU - Pasch, Richard J.

AU - Blake, Eric S.

AU - Schemm, Jae

AU - Kimberlain, Todd B.

AU - Schreck, Carl J.

AU - Evans, Thomas E.

AU - Camargo, Suzana J.

AU - Gleason, Karin L.

AU - Trewin, Blair C.

AU - Lorrey, Andrew M.

AU - Fauchereau, Nicolas C.

AU - Chappell, Petra R.

AU - Ready, Steve

AU - Goni, Gustavo J.

AU - Knaff, John A.

AU - Lin, I. I.

AU - Wang, Bin

AU - Mullan, A. Brett

AU - Pezza, Alexandre B.

AU - Coelho, Caio A S

AU - Wang, Chunzai

AU - Fogarty, Chris T.

AU - Klotzbach, Philip

AU - Luo, Jing Jia

AU - Lander, Mark A.

AU - Guard, Charles P Chip

AU - Jeffries, Martin O.

AU - Richter-Menge, Jacqueline

AU - Overland, James

AU - Key, Jeff

AU - Hanna, E.

AU - Hanssen-Bauer, I.

AU - Kim, B. M.

AU - Kim, S. J.

AU - Walsh, J.

AU - Wang, M.

AU - Bhatt, U. S.

AU - Liu, Yinghui

AU - Stone, R.

AU - Cox, C.

AU - Walden, V.

AU - Francis, Jennifer

AU - Vavrus, S.

AU - Tang, Q.

AU - Bernhard, Germar

AU - Manney, Gloria

AU - Grooß, Jnes Uwe

AU - Müller, Rolf

AU - Heikkilä, Anu

AU - Johnsen, Bjorn

AU - Koskela, Tapani

AU - Lakkala, Kaisa

AU - Svendby, T.

AU - Dahlback, A.

AU - Bruhwiler, Lori

AU - Laurila, T.

AU - Worthy, D.

AU - Quinn, P. K.

AU - Stohl, A.

AU - Baklanov, A.

AU - Flanner, M. G.

AU - Herber, A.

AU - Kupiainen, K.

AU - Law, K. S.

AU - Schmale, J.

AU - Sharma, S.

AU - Vestreng, V.

AU - Von Salzen, K.

AU - Perovich, Don

AU - Gerland, S.

AU - Hendricks, S.

AU - Meier, W.

AU - Nicolaus, M.

AU - Tschudi, M.

AU - Timmermans, Mary Louise

AU - Ashik, I.

AU - Frolov, I.

AU - Ha, H. K.

AU - Ingvaldsen, R.

AU - Kikuchi, T.

AU - Kim, T. W.

AU - Krishfield, R.

AU - Loeng, H.

AU - Nishino, S.

AU - Pickart, R.

AU - Polyakov, I.

AU - Rabe, B.

AU - Schauer, U.

AU - Schlosser, P.

AU - Smethie, W. M.

AU - Sokolov, V.

AU - Steele, M.

AU - Toole, J.

AU - Williams, W.

AU - Woodgate, R.

AU - Zimmerman, S.

AU - Cross, J. N.

AU - Evans, W.

AU - Anderson, L.

AU - Yamamoto-Kawai, M.

AU - Derksen, Chris

AU - Brown, R.

AU - Luojus, K.

AU - Sharp, Martin

AU - Wolken, G.

AU - Geai, M. L.

AU - Burgess, D.

AU - Arendt, A.

AU - Wouters, B.

AU - Kohler, J.

AU - Andreassen, L. M.

AU - Tedesco, Marco

AU - Box, J. E.

AU - Cappelen, John

AU - Fettweis, X.

AU - Jensen, T. S.

AU - Mote, Thomas

AU - Rennermalm, A. K.

AU - Smith, L. C.

AU - van de Wal, R. S W

AU - Wahr, John

AU - Duguay, Claude R.

AU - Brown, L. C.

AU - Kang, Kyun Kuk

AU - Kheyrollah Pour, H.

AU - Streletskiy, D. A.

AU - Drozdov, D. S.

AU - Malkova, G. V.

AU - Oberman, N. G.

AU - Kholodov, A. L.

AU - Marchenko, S. S.

AU - Fogt, Ryan L.

AU - Scambos, Ted A.

AU - Clem, Kyle R.

AU - Barreira, Sandra

AU - Colwell, Steve

AU - Keller, Linda M.

AU - Lazzara, Matthew A.

AU - Setzer, Alberto

AU - Bromwich, David H.

AU - Wang, Sheng Hung

AU - Wang, Lei

AU - Liu, Hongxing

AU - Wang, Shujie

AU - Shu, Song

AU - Massom, Robert A.

AU - Reid, Phillip

AU - Stammerjohn, Sharon

AU - Lieser, Jan

AU - Newman, Paul A.

AU - Kramarova, Natalya

AU - Nash, Eric R.

AU - Pitts, Michael C.

AU - Johnson, Bryan

AU - Santee, Michelle L.

AU - Braathen, Geir O.

AU - Campbell, Garret G.

AU - Pope, Allen

AU - Haran, Terry

AU - Sánchez-Lugo, Ahira

AU - Renwick, James A.

AU - Thiaw, Wassila M.

AU - Weaver, Scott J.

AU - Vincent, Lucie A.

AU - Phillips, David

AU - Whitewood, Robert

AU - Crouch, Jake

AU - Heim, R. R.

AU - Fenimore, Chris

AU - Augustine, John

AU - Pascual, R.

AU - Albanil, Adelina

AU - Vazquez, J. L.

AU - Lobato, Rene

AU - Amador, Jorge A.

AU - Alfaro, Eric J.

AU - Hidalgo, Hugo G.

AU - Durán-Quesada, Ana M.

AU - Calderón, Blanca

AU - Rivera, Ingrid L.

AU - Vega, Carla

AU - Stephenson, Tannecia S.

AU - Taylor, Michael A.

AU - Trotman, Adrian R.

AU - Porter, Avalon O.

AU - Gonzalez, Idelmis T.

AU - Spence, Jacqueline M.

AU - McLean, Natalie

AU - Campbell, Jayaka D.

AU - Brown, Glenroy

AU - Butler, Mary

AU - Blenman, Rosalind C.

AU - Aaron-Morrison, Arlene P.

AU - Marcellin-Honore’, Vernie

AU - Martínez, Rodney

AU - Arévalo, Juan

AU - Carrasco, Gualberto

AU - Euscátegui, Christian

AU - Bazo, Juan

AU - Nieto, Juan J.

AU - Zambrano, Eduardo

AU - Marengo, José A.

AU - Alves, Lincoln M.

AU - Espinoza, Jhan C.

AU - Ronchail, Josyane

AU - Bidegain, Mario

AU - Stella, Jose L.

AU - Penalba, Olga C.

AU - Kabidi, Khadija

AU - Sayouri, Amal

AU - Ebrahim, Awatif

AU - James, I. A.

AU - Dekaa, Francis S.

AU - Sima, Fatou

AU - Coulibaly, K. Alama

AU - Gitau, Wilson

AU - Chang’a, L.

AU - Oludhe, Christopher S.

AU - Ogallo, Laban A.

AU - Atheru, Zachary

AU - Ambenje, Peter

AU - Kijazi, Agnes

AU - Ng’ongolo, H.

AU - Luhunga, P.

AU - Levira, Pamela

AU - Kruger, Andries

AU - McBride, Charlotte

AU - Rakotomavo, Zo

AU - Jumaux, Guillaume

AU - Trachte, Katja

AU - Bissolli, Peter

AU - Obregón, Andre

AU - Nitsche, Helga

AU - Parker, David

AU - Kennedy, John J.

AU - Kendon, Michael

AU - Trigo, Ricardo

AU - Barriopedro, David

AU - Ramos, A.

AU - Sensoy, Serhat

AU - Hovhannisyan, Diana

AU - Bulygina, Olga N.

AU - Khoshkam, Mahbobeh

AU - Korshunova, Natalia N.

AU - Oyunjargal, Lamjav

AU - Park, E. Hyung

AU - Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh

AU - Rajeevan, Madhavan

AU - Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.

AU - Revadekar, Jayashree V.

AU - Srivastava, A. K.

AU - Yamada, R.

AU - Zhang, Peiqun

AU - Tanaka, Shotaro

AU - Yoshimatsu, Kazuyoshi

AU - Ohno, Hiroshi

AU - Ganter, Catherine

AU - Macara, Gregor R.

AU - McGree, Simon

AU - Tobin, Skie

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - In 2013, the vast majority of the monitored climate variables reported here maintained trends established in recent decades. ENSO was in a neutral state during the entire year, remaining mostly on the cool side of neutral with modest impacts on regional weather patterns around the world. This follows several years dominated by the effects of either La Niña or El Niño events. According to several independent analyses, 2013 was again among the 10 warmest years on record at the global scale, both at the Earth’s surface and through the troposphere. Some regions in the Southern Hemisphere had record or near-record high temperatures for the year. Australia observed its hottest year on record, while Argentina and New Zealand reported their second and third hottest years, respectively. In Antarctica, Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station reported its highest annual temperature since records began in 1957. At the opposite pole, the Arctic observed its seventh warmest year since records began in the early 20th century. At 20-m depth, record high temperatures were measured at some permafrost stations on the North Slope of Alaska and in the Brooks Range. In the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, anomalous meridional atmospheric circulation occurred throughout much of the year, leading to marked regional extremes of both temperature and precipitation. Cold temperature anomalies during winter across Eurasia were followed by warm spring temperature anomalies, which were linked to a new record low Eurasian snow cover extent in May. Minimum sea ice extent in the Arctic was the sixth lowest since satellite observations began in 1979. Including 2013, all seven lowest extents on record have occurred in the past seven years. Antarctica, on the other hand, had above-average sea ice extent throughout 2013, with 116 days of new daily high extent records, including a new daily maximum sea ice area of 19.57 million km2 reached on 1 October. ENSO-neutral conditions in the eastern central Pacific Ocean and a negative Pacific decadal oscillation pattern in the North Pacific had the largest impacts on the global sea surface temperature in 2013. The North Pacific reached a historic high temperature in 2013 and on balance the globally-averaged sea surface temperature was among the 10 highest on record. Overall, the salt content in nearsurface ocean waters increased while in intermediate waters it decreased. Global mean sea level continued to rise during 2013, on pace with a trend of 3.2 mm yr-1 over the past two decades. A portion of this trend (0.5 mm yr-1) has been attributed to natural variability associated with the Pacific decadal oscillation as well as to ongoing contributions from the melting of glaciers and ice sheets and ocean warming. Global tropical cyclone frequency during 2013 was slightly above average with a total of 94 storms, although the North Atlantic Basin had its quietest hurricane season since 1994. In the Western North Pacific Basin, Super Typhoon Haiyan, the deadliest tropical cyclone of 2013, had 1-minute sustained winds estimated to be 170 kt (87.5 m s-1) on 7 November, the highest wind speed ever assigned to a tropical cyclone. High storm surge was also associated with Haiyan as it made landfall over the central Philippines, an area where sea level is currently at historic highs, increasing by 200 mm since 1970. In the atmosphere, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide all continued to increase in 2013. As in previous years, each of these major greenhouse gases once again reached historic high concentrations. In the Arctic, carbon dioxide and methane increased at the same rate as the global increase. These increases are likely due to export from lower latitudes rather than a consequence of increases in Arctic sources, such as thawing permafrost. At Mauna Loa, Hawaii, for the first time since measurements began in 1958, the daily average mixing ratio of carbon dioxide exceeded 400 ppm on 9 May. The state of these variables, along with dozens of others, and the 2013 climate conditions of regions around the world are discussed in further detail in this 24th edition of the State of the Climate series.

AB - In 2013, the vast majority of the monitored climate variables reported here maintained trends established in recent decades. ENSO was in a neutral state during the entire year, remaining mostly on the cool side of neutral with modest impacts on regional weather patterns around the world. This follows several years dominated by the effects of either La Niña or El Niño events. According to several independent analyses, 2013 was again among the 10 warmest years on record at the global scale, both at the Earth’s surface and through the troposphere. Some regions in the Southern Hemisphere had record or near-record high temperatures for the year. Australia observed its hottest year on record, while Argentina and New Zealand reported their second and third hottest years, respectively. In Antarctica, Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station reported its highest annual temperature since records began in 1957. At the opposite pole, the Arctic observed its seventh warmest year since records began in the early 20th century. At 20-m depth, record high temperatures were measured at some permafrost stations on the North Slope of Alaska and in the Brooks Range. In the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, anomalous meridional atmospheric circulation occurred throughout much of the year, leading to marked regional extremes of both temperature and precipitation. Cold temperature anomalies during winter across Eurasia were followed by warm spring temperature anomalies, which were linked to a new record low Eurasian snow cover extent in May. Minimum sea ice extent in the Arctic was the sixth lowest since satellite observations began in 1979. Including 2013, all seven lowest extents on record have occurred in the past seven years. Antarctica, on the other hand, had above-average sea ice extent throughout 2013, with 116 days of new daily high extent records, including a new daily maximum sea ice area of 19.57 million km2 reached on 1 October. ENSO-neutral conditions in the eastern central Pacific Ocean and a negative Pacific decadal oscillation pattern in the North Pacific had the largest impacts on the global sea surface temperature in 2013. The North Pacific reached a historic high temperature in 2013 and on balance the globally-averaged sea surface temperature was among the 10 highest on record. Overall, the salt content in nearsurface ocean waters increased while in intermediate waters it decreased. Global mean sea level continued to rise during 2013, on pace with a trend of 3.2 mm yr-1 over the past two decades. A portion of this trend (0.5 mm yr-1) has been attributed to natural variability associated with the Pacific decadal oscillation as well as to ongoing contributions from the melting of glaciers and ice sheets and ocean warming. Global tropical cyclone frequency during 2013 was slightly above average with a total of 94 storms, although the North Atlantic Basin had its quietest hurricane season since 1994. In the Western North Pacific Basin, Super Typhoon Haiyan, the deadliest tropical cyclone of 2013, had 1-minute sustained winds estimated to be 170 kt (87.5 m s-1) on 7 November, the highest wind speed ever assigned to a tropical cyclone. High storm surge was also associated with Haiyan as it made landfall over the central Philippines, an area where sea level is currently at historic highs, increasing by 200 mm since 1970. In the atmosphere, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide all continued to increase in 2013. As in previous years, each of these major greenhouse gases once again reached historic high concentrations. In the Arctic, carbon dioxide and methane increased at the same rate as the global increase. These increases are likely due to export from lower latitudes rather than a consequence of increases in Arctic sources, such as thawing permafrost. At Mauna Loa, Hawaii, for the first time since measurements began in 1958, the daily average mixing ratio of carbon dioxide exceeded 400 ppm on 9 May. The state of these variables, along with dozens of others, and the 2013 climate conditions of regions around the world are discussed in further detail in this 24th edition of the State of the Climate series.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84910080574&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84910080574&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1175/2014BAMSStateoftheClimate.1

DO - 10.1175/2014BAMSStateoftheClimate.1

M3 - Article

VL - 95

SP - S1-S279

JO - Earth Interactions

JF - Earth Interactions

SN - 0003-0007

IS - 7

ER -