Staging the progression to type 1 diabetes with prediagnostic markers

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Purpose of review There are an increasing number of markers that are used to predict the occurrence of type 1 diabetes (T1D), and to study the progression of pathologic changes prior to diagnosis. This review discusses some of those markers, particularly markers for which data are available that pertain to the progression to T1D. Recent findings A study of birth cohorts showed that young children who develop multiple autoantibodies are at a particularly high risk for developing T1D, and that there appears to be a typical sequence for autoantibody development. The measurement of autoantibodies by electrochemiluminescence can increase the prediction accuracy for T1D. A new marker of changes in glucose over 6 months (PS6 M) has potential utility as an endpoint in short-term prevention trials. Markers which combine C-peptide and glucose, such as the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 Risk Score and the Index60, can increase the accuracy of prediction, and can potentially be utilized as prediagnostic endpoints. β-cell death measurements could have substantial utility in future T1D research. Summary Markers are highly useful for studying the prediction of and progression to T1D. Moreover, markers can possibly be utilized to diagnose T1D at an earlier stage of disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)297-305
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016


  • diagnosis
  • markers
  • natural history
  • prediction
  • type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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