Squamous cell carcinoma: 2021 updated review of treatment

Isabella Dreyfuss, Preetha Kamath, Fabio Frech, Loren Hernandez, Keyvan Nouri

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common cutaneous malignancy, requiring early diagnosis to prevent metastasis. Updated guidelines in the definition of clinical features, diagnostic modalities, grading, staging, surgical, and nonsurgical treatment methods are necessary. Diagnostic methods from biopsy, dermoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy have improved to include high-frequency ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography, and computed tomography. Non-surgical treatment methods include topical therapy, cryosurgery, photodynamic therapy, and radiation. Surgical treatment methods include surgical excision with margins and Mohs surgery. Clinical trials encourage further research to address the knowledge base of genetic variations and lymph node metastasis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere15308
JournalDermatologic Therapy
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • keratinocyte cancer
  • optical coherence tomography
  • phototherapy
  • reflectance focal microscopy
  • squamous cell carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology


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