Sport-specific shoulder injuries

Scott F. Nadler, Andrew L. Sherman, Gerard A. Malanga

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The shoulder is a complex joint that provides great mobility at the expense of stability. The structural integrity of the shoulder depends on the bone architecture; ligamentous, cartilaginous, and capsular restraints; and dynamic muscular control. Biomechanically, this four-joint complex is one of the finest machines imaginable, with fine-tuned sequencing of muscle activation controlling joint motion. Alterations in muscle firing patterns through damage of the static or dynamic stabilizing elements of the shoulder are difficult to diagnose and treat. A comprehensive understanding of shoulder mechanics is necessary for any clinician treating pathologic conditions of the shoulder. Correcting the secondary effects of altered mechanics without addressing the primary causes leads to a poor functional outcome. Ultimately, restoration of mobility, restoration of strength, and correction of underlying biomechanical issues may help return even the highest level throwing, swimming, and racquet athletes to competition with excellent results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)607-626
Number of pages20
JournalPhysical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation


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