Sporogonic development of Plasmodium yoelii yoelii 17XNL was examined in 5 species of Anopheles mosquitoes; A. albimanus, A. dirus, A. freeborni, A. gambiae, and A. stephensi. The kinetics of ookinete formation differed among species. In A. freeborni, A. gambiae, and A. stephensi, mature ookinetes formed synchronously at 8 hr, then quickly subsided. In A. albimanus and A. dirus, ookinete formation was more protracted, and ookinete densities peaked from 12 to 24 hr. Losses in parasite abundance during the conversion of ookinetes to oocysts were similar between A. dirus and A. gambiae (55- and 41-fold losses, respectively) but were an order of magnitude less in A. stephensi (1.3-fold loss). Ookinete conversion to oocysts in A. albimanus was nil. Melanotic encapsulation of oocysts occurred in 25-30% of infected A. gambiae and A. dirus. Melanized parasites in A. gambiae at days 7-10 were small (10 μm diameter) and retort-shaped, whereas melanized parasites in A. dirus were generally as large as normal oocysts (60 μm) and many were incompletely melanized. Melanotic encapsulation did not occur in A. stephensi, A. freeborni, or A. albimanus. On day 16, sporozoites were present in the salivary glands of A. freeborni, A. gambiae, and A. stephensi, but only half of mosquitoes with mature oocysts also had gland infections. When present in the glands, sporozoites were successfully transmitted to mice via mosquito bite. Parasite populations were not normally distributed in any mosquito species but were adequately described by a negative binomial type of distribution.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics