The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in radiation nephropathy remain largely unknown. Podocytes are increasingly recognized as key players in the pathogenesis of proteinuria in primary and secondary glomerular disorders. The lipid-modulating enzyme sphingomyelinphosphodiesterase acid-like 3B(SMPDL3b) is akey determinant ofpodocyte injury andaknownoff target of the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab (RTX). The current study investigates the role of sphingolipids in radiation-inducedpodocytopathy. After a single dose of radiation (8Gy), several ceramide specieswere significantly elevated. In particular, C16:00, C24:00, and C24:1 ceramides were the most abundant ceramide species detected. These changes were paralleled by a time-dependent drop in SMPDL3b protein, sphingosine, and sphingosine- 1-phosphate levels. Interestingly, SMPDL3b-overexpressing podocytes had higher basal levels of sphingosine- 1-phosphate and maintained basal ceramide levels after irradiation. Morphologically, irradiated podocytes demonstrated loss of filopodia and remodeling of cortical actin. Furthermore, the actin binding protein ezrin relocated from the plasma membrane to the cytosol as early as 2 h after radiation. In contrast, SMPDL3b overexpressing podocytes were protected from radiation-induced cytoskeletal remodeling. Treatment with RTX before radiation exposure partially protected podocytes from SMPDL3b loss, cytoskeletal remodeling, and caspase 3 cleavage. Our results demonstrate that radiation injury induces early cytoskeletal remodeling, downregulation ofSMPDL3b, and elevation of cellular ceramide levels. Overexpression ofSMPDL3b and pretreatment with RTX confer a radioprotective effect in cultured podocytes. These findings indicate a potential role for SMPDL3b and RTX in radiation-induced podocytopathy.-Ahmad, A., Mitrofanova, A., Bielawski, J., Yang, Y., Marples, B., Fornoni, A., Zeidan, Y. H. Sphingomyelinase-like phosphodiesterase 3b mediates radiation-induced damage of renal podocytes. FASEB J. 31, 771-780 (2017). www.fasebj.org.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology