The recent advances in global position systems (GPS), geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing (RS) can be exploited for spatial sampling design for demographic and health surveys. These technologies are particularly useful when a sampling frame is unavailable and/or location (of household) is important for data collection (e.g., location of residence might greatly impact exposure to ambient air pollution among members of a population). Building on these technologies, this article presents a methodology of spatial sampling adopted for the respiratory health and demographic survey conducted in Delhi and its environs from January through April 2004. The overall goal of the survey was to select households that adequately represented exposure to ambient air pollution. The proposed methodology involved constructing a sampling frame of residential areas and the simulation of weighted random points within residential areas. The simulated locations were navigated with the aid of GPS to identify households at these locations and to acquire residents' consent to participate in the survey; a total of 1,576 households at the 2,000 simulated locations were found suitable and participated in the survey. The average ambient air pollution at the sample sites was not significantly different from the average air pollution observed in the study area, which demonstrates the robustness of the proposed sampling method.
- Demographic and health survey
- GIS and random point
- Spatially sampling
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