Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiment: Carbon Cycling in High- and Low-Si Waters

Kenneth H. Coale, Kenneth S. Johnson, Francisco P. Chavez, Ken O. Buesseler, Richard T. Barber, Mark A. Brzezinski, William P. Cochlan, Frank J Millero, Paul G. Falkowski, James E. Bauer, Rik H. Wanninkhof, Raphael M. Kudela, Mark A. Altabet, Burke E. Hales, Taro Takahashi, Michael R. Landry, Robert R. Bidigare, Xiujun Wang, Zanna Chase, Pete G. StruttonGernot E. Friederich, Maxim Y. Gorbunov, Veronica P. Lance, Anna K. Hilting, Michael R. Hiscock, Mark Demarest, William T. Hiscock, Kevin F. Sullivan, Sara J. Tanner, R. Mike Gordon, Craig N. Hunter, Virginia A. Elrod, Steve E. Fitzwater, Janice L. Jones, Sasha Tozzi, Michal Koblizek, Alice E. Roberts, Julian Herndon, Jodi Brewster, Nicolas Ladizinsky, Geoffrey Smith, David Cooper, David Timothy, Susan L. Brown, Karen E. Selph, Cecelia C. Sheridan, Benjamin S. Twining, Zackary I. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

436 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The availability of iron is known to exert a controlling influence on biological productivity in surface waters over large areas of the ocean and may have been an important factor in the variation of the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide over glacial cycles. The effect of iron in the Southern Ocean is particularly important because of its large area and abundant nitrate, yet iron-enhanced growth of phytoplankton may be differentially expressed between waters with high silicic acid in the south and low silicic acid in the north, where diatom growth may be limited by both silicic acid and iron. Two mesoscale experiments, designed to investigate the effects of iron enrichment in regions with high and low concentrations of silicic acid, were performed in the Southern Ocean. These experiments demonstrate iron's pivotal role in controlling carbon uptake and regulating atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)408-414
Number of pages7
JournalScience
Volume304
Issue number5669
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 16 2004

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Silicic Acid
Oceans and Seas
Carbon
Iron
Water
Carbon Dioxide
Diatoms
Phytoplankton
Atmospheric Pressure
Partial Pressure
Growth
Nitrates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Coale, K. H., Johnson, K. S., Chavez, F. P., Buesseler, K. O., Barber, R. T., Brzezinski, M. A., ... Johnson, Z. I. (2004). Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiment: Carbon Cycling in High- and Low-Si Waters. Science, 304(5669), 408-414. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1089778

Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiment : Carbon Cycling in High- and Low-Si Waters. / Coale, Kenneth H.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Chavez, Francisco P.; Buesseler, Ken O.; Barber, Richard T.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Cochlan, William P.; Millero, Frank J; Falkowski, Paul G.; Bauer, James E.; Wanninkhof, Rik H.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Altabet, Mark A.; Hales, Burke E.; Takahashi, Taro; Landry, Michael R.; Bidigare, Robert R.; Wang, Xiujun; Chase, Zanna; Strutton, Pete G.; Friederich, Gernot E.; Gorbunov, Maxim Y.; Lance, Veronica P.; Hilting, Anna K.; Hiscock, Michael R.; Demarest, Mark; Hiscock, William T.; Sullivan, Kevin F.; Tanner, Sara J.; Gordon, R. Mike; Hunter, Craig N.; Elrod, Virginia A.; Fitzwater, Steve E.; Jones, Janice L.; Tozzi, Sasha; Koblizek, Michal; Roberts, Alice E.; Herndon, Julian; Brewster, Jodi; Ladizinsky, Nicolas; Smith, Geoffrey; Cooper, David; Timothy, David; Brown, Susan L.; Selph, Karen E.; Sheridan, Cecelia C.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Johnson, Zackary I.

In: Science, Vol. 304, No. 5669, 16.04.2004, p. 408-414.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Coale, KH, Johnson, KS, Chavez, FP, Buesseler, KO, Barber, RT, Brzezinski, MA, Cochlan, WP, Millero, FJ, Falkowski, PG, Bauer, JE, Wanninkhof, RH, Kudela, RM, Altabet, MA, Hales, BE, Takahashi, T, Landry, MR, Bidigare, RR, Wang, X, Chase, Z, Strutton, PG, Friederich, GE, Gorbunov, MY, Lance, VP, Hilting, AK, Hiscock, MR, Demarest, M, Hiscock, WT, Sullivan, KF, Tanner, SJ, Gordon, RM, Hunter, CN, Elrod, VA, Fitzwater, SE, Jones, JL, Tozzi, S, Koblizek, M, Roberts, AE, Herndon, J, Brewster, J, Ladizinsky, N, Smith, G, Cooper, D, Timothy, D, Brown, SL, Selph, KE, Sheridan, CC, Twining, BS & Johnson, ZI 2004, 'Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiment: Carbon Cycling in High- and Low-Si Waters', Science, vol. 304, no. 5669, pp. 408-414. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1089778
Coale KH, Johnson KS, Chavez FP, Buesseler KO, Barber RT, Brzezinski MA et al. Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiment: Carbon Cycling in High- and Low-Si Waters. Science. 2004 Apr 16;304(5669):408-414. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1089778
Coale, Kenneth H. ; Johnson, Kenneth S. ; Chavez, Francisco P. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Barber, Richard T. ; Brzezinski, Mark A. ; Cochlan, William P. ; Millero, Frank J ; Falkowski, Paul G. ; Bauer, James E. ; Wanninkhof, Rik H. ; Kudela, Raphael M. ; Altabet, Mark A. ; Hales, Burke E. ; Takahashi, Taro ; Landry, Michael R. ; Bidigare, Robert R. ; Wang, Xiujun ; Chase, Zanna ; Strutton, Pete G. ; Friederich, Gernot E. ; Gorbunov, Maxim Y. ; Lance, Veronica P. ; Hilting, Anna K. ; Hiscock, Michael R. ; Demarest, Mark ; Hiscock, William T. ; Sullivan, Kevin F. ; Tanner, Sara J. ; Gordon, R. Mike ; Hunter, Craig N. ; Elrod, Virginia A. ; Fitzwater, Steve E. ; Jones, Janice L. ; Tozzi, Sasha ; Koblizek, Michal ; Roberts, Alice E. ; Herndon, Julian ; Brewster, Jodi ; Ladizinsky, Nicolas ; Smith, Geoffrey ; Cooper, David ; Timothy, David ; Brown, Susan L. ; Selph, Karen E. ; Sheridan, Cecelia C. ; Twining, Benjamin S. ; Johnson, Zackary I. / Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiment : Carbon Cycling in High- and Low-Si Waters. In: Science. 2004 ; Vol. 304, No. 5669. pp. 408-414.
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abstract = "The availability of iron is known to exert a controlling influence on biological productivity in surface waters over large areas of the ocean and may have been an important factor in the variation of the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide over glacial cycles. The effect of iron in the Southern Ocean is particularly important because of its large area and abundant nitrate, yet iron-enhanced growth of phytoplankton may be differentially expressed between waters with high silicic acid in the south and low silicic acid in the north, where diatom growth may be limited by both silicic acid and iron. Two mesoscale experiments, designed to investigate the effects of iron enrichment in regions with high and low concentrations of silicic acid, were performed in the Southern Ocean. These experiments demonstrate iron's pivotal role in controlling carbon uptake and regulating atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide.",
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AU - Coale, Kenneth H.

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AU - Chavez, Francisco P.

AU - Buesseler, Ken O.

AU - Barber, Richard T.

AU - Brzezinski, Mark A.

AU - Cochlan, William P.

AU - Millero, Frank J

AU - Falkowski, Paul G.

AU - Bauer, James E.

AU - Wanninkhof, Rik H.

AU - Kudela, Raphael M.

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AU - Strutton, Pete G.

AU - Friederich, Gernot E.

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AU - Lance, Veronica P.

AU - Hilting, Anna K.

AU - Hiscock, Michael R.

AU - Demarest, Mark

AU - Hiscock, William T.

AU - Sullivan, Kevin F.

AU - Tanner, Sara J.

AU - Gordon, R. Mike

AU - Hunter, Craig N.

AU - Elrod, Virginia A.

AU - Fitzwater, Steve E.

AU - Jones, Janice L.

AU - Tozzi, Sasha

AU - Koblizek, Michal

AU - Roberts, Alice E.

AU - Herndon, Julian

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AU - Ladizinsky, Nicolas

AU - Smith, Geoffrey

AU - Cooper, David

AU - Timothy, David

AU - Brown, Susan L.

AU - Selph, Karen E.

AU - Sheridan, Cecelia C.

AU - Twining, Benjamin S.

AU - Johnson, Zackary I.

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