Source case identification in HIV-exposed infants and tuberculosis diagnosis in an isoniazid prevention study

Elke Regina Maritz, G. Montepiedra, L. Liu, Charles D Mitchell, S. A. Madhi, R. Bobat, A. Violari, A. Ogwu, A. C. Hesseling, M. F. Cotton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Identifying source cases of children exposed to tuberculosis (TB) is challenging. We examined the time-point of obtaining contact information of TB source cases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of pre-exposure to isoniazid prophylaxis. METHODS : A total of 543 HIV-infected and 808 HEU infants without TB exposure aged 3-4 months were enrolled between 2004 and 2008. At 3-monthly followup, infants were evaluated for TB and care givers were asked about new TB exposure. RESULT S : In total, 128 cases of TB disease and 40 deaths were recorded among 19% (105/543) of the HIVinfected and 8% (63/808) of the HEU children; 229 TB contact occasions were reported in 205/1351 (15%) children, of which 83% (189/229) were in the household. Of the 189 household contacts, 108 (53%) underwent microbiological evaluations; 81% (87/108) were positive. HIV-infected and HEU infants had similar frequencies of TB contact: in 48% of infants with definite TB, 58% with probable TB and 43% with possible TB. Of 128 children diagnosed with TB, a TB contact was identified for 59. Of these, 29/59 (49%) were identified at or after the child's TB diagnosis. CONCLUS ION: TB source cases are often identified at or after a child's TB diagnosis. More effort is required for earlier detection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1060-1064
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016



  • Child TB diagnosis
  • HIVexposed
  • Source case

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Maritz, E. R., Montepiedra, G., Liu, L., Mitchell, C. D., Madhi, S. A., Bobat, R., Violari, A., Ogwu, A., Hesseling, A. C., & Cotton, M. F. (2016). Source case identification in HIV-exposed infants and tuberculosis diagnosis in an isoniazid prevention study. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 20(8), 1060-1064.