The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether patients affected by solitary nodular disease of the thyroid or multinodular goiter had a different clinical outcome when treated with suppressive levo-thyroxine (L- T4) therapy rather than replacement L-T4 therapy. We evaluated, by a retrospective analysis, 36 patients who had received TSH-suppressive L-T4 therapy according to TSH value and 55 who had received replacement L-T4 therapy. Fine needle aspiration cytology and thyroid scan after 131I were evaluated before L-T4 administration, while echographic monitoring of number and dimensions of nodules was recorded prior to and during L-T4 treatment. No difference in duration of L-T4 treatment (about 3 years) was registered between the TSH-suppressive therapy group and replacement therapy group. L- T4 administration in a TSH-suppressive or replacement manner did not induce a numerical or volumetric significant decrease of the main nodule or of the total nodule volume. Our data show that chronic TSH-suppressive therapy does not seem to be better than replacement therapy. Moreover, TSH-suppressive therapy presented a higher risk of adverse events than replacement therapy, thus requiring a more careful check with a higher cost of care.
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