Socioeconomic, Psychosocial, and Clinical Factors Associated with Employment in Women with HIV in the United States: A Correlational Study

Jenni M. Wise, Andres Azuero, Deborah Konkle-Parker, James L. Raper, Karen Heaton, David E. Vance, Adaora A. Adimora, Gina Wingood, Elizabeth Golub, Susanna Levin, Tracey E. Wilson, Daniel Merenstein, Ed Yelin, Kathleen M. Weber, Margaret Fischl, Mirjam Colette Kempf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Employment is a social determinant of health, and women living with HIV (WLWH) are often underemployed. This correlational study examined the socioeconomic, psychosocial, and clinical factors associated with employment among WLWH (n = 1,357) and women at risk for HIV (n = 560). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to evaluate factors associated with employment status. Employment was associated (p ≤.05) with better socioeconomic status and quality of life (QOL), less tobacco and substance use, and better physical, psychological, and cognitive health. Among WLWH, employment was associated (p ≤.05) with improved adherence to HIV care visits and HIV RNA viral suppression. Using multivariable regression modeling, differences were found between WLWH and women at risk for HIV. Among WLWH, household income, QOL, education, and time providing childcare remained associated with employment in adjusted multivariable analyses (R2=.272, p <.001). A better understanding of the psychosocial and structural factors affecting employment is needed to reduce occupational disparities among WLWH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-44
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
Volume33
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • cohort study
  • employment
  • psychosocial
  • socioeconomic
  • women living with HIV

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing

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