Social and environmental enrichment improves sensory and motor recovery after severe contusive spinal cord injury in the rat

Yerko Berrocal, Damien D Pearse, Amanpreet Singh, Christian M. Andrade, Jordan S. McBroom, Rocio Puentes, Mary J. Eaton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Neuropathic pain and motor dysfunction are difficult problems following spinal cord injury (SCI). Social and environmental enrichment (SEE), which models much of the clinical rehabilitation environment for post-SCI persons, is the focus of the current investigation which examines the effects of multiple-housing and the addition of climbing spaces, improved bedding and crawl toys on the sensory and motor recovery following a severe contusive SCI. Efficacy was determined with sensory testing, open-field motor behavioral testing, lesion volume analysis and quantification of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the lumbar spinal cord with and without SEE provided during the recovery period. Sensory and motor testing were performed weekly for 12 weeks following SCI. SEE significantly and permanently reversed cutaneous allodynia, but not thermal hyperalgesia, to near normal levels. The gross locomotor performance (BBB [Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan] motor scores) significantly improved about two points. In addition, the BBB subscale scores were significantly improved nearly seven points by the end of the study. SEE also significantly improved foot rotation to normal levels and reduced gridwalk footfall errors nearly 50%, but had no effect on stride length or base of support dysfunctions. SEE significantly increased the total volume of a thoracic segment of cord encompassing the injury site at 12 weeks, by reducing cavitation and increasing both the volume of grey and white matter spared, compared to SCI alone. When BDNF levels were examined in the injured lumbar spinal cord, SEE significantly returned BDNF levels to near-normal. These data suggest that immediate use of SEE after contusive SCI is able to improve overall spinal cell survival and prevent much of the sensory and motor dysfunction that accompanies contusive SCI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1761-1772
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Volume24
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2007

Fingerprint

Spinal Cord Injuries
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
Spinal Cord
Hyperalgesia
Play and Playthings
Neuralgia
Foot
Cell Survival
Thorax
Rehabilitation
Skin
Wounds and Injuries

Keywords

  • Growth factors
  • Locomotor function
  • Sensory function
  • Therapeutic approaches for the treatment of CNS
  • Traumatic spinal cord injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Social and environmental enrichment improves sensory and motor recovery after severe contusive spinal cord injury in the rat. / Berrocal, Yerko; Pearse, Damien D; Singh, Amanpreet; Andrade, Christian M.; McBroom, Jordan S.; Puentes, Rocio; Eaton, Mary J.

In: Journal of Neurotrauma, Vol. 24, No. 11, 01.11.2007, p. 1761-1772.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Berrocal, Yerko ; Pearse, Damien D ; Singh, Amanpreet ; Andrade, Christian M. ; McBroom, Jordan S. ; Puentes, Rocio ; Eaton, Mary J. / Social and environmental enrichment improves sensory and motor recovery after severe contusive spinal cord injury in the rat. In: Journal of Neurotrauma. 2007 ; Vol. 24, No. 11. pp. 1761-1772.
@article{3db53e82558a4033b627595dde6e41ef,
title = "Social and environmental enrichment improves sensory and motor recovery after severe contusive spinal cord injury in the rat",
abstract = "Neuropathic pain and motor dysfunction are difficult problems following spinal cord injury (SCI). Social and environmental enrichment (SEE), which models much of the clinical rehabilitation environment for post-SCI persons, is the focus of the current investigation which examines the effects of multiple-housing and the addition of climbing spaces, improved bedding and crawl toys on the sensory and motor recovery following a severe contusive SCI. Efficacy was determined with sensory testing, open-field motor behavioral testing, lesion volume analysis and quantification of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the lumbar spinal cord with and without SEE provided during the recovery period. Sensory and motor testing were performed weekly for 12 weeks following SCI. SEE significantly and permanently reversed cutaneous allodynia, but not thermal hyperalgesia, to near normal levels. The gross locomotor performance (BBB [Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan] motor scores) significantly improved about two points. In addition, the BBB subscale scores were significantly improved nearly seven points by the end of the study. SEE also significantly improved foot rotation to normal levels and reduced gridwalk footfall errors nearly 50{\%}, but had no effect on stride length or base of support dysfunctions. SEE significantly increased the total volume of a thoracic segment of cord encompassing the injury site at 12 weeks, by reducing cavitation and increasing both the volume of grey and white matter spared, compared to SCI alone. When BDNF levels were examined in the injured lumbar spinal cord, SEE significantly returned BDNF levels to near-normal. These data suggest that immediate use of SEE after contusive SCI is able to improve overall spinal cell survival and prevent much of the sensory and motor dysfunction that accompanies contusive SCI.",
keywords = "Growth factors, Locomotor function, Sensory function, Therapeutic approaches for the treatment of CNS, Traumatic spinal cord injury",
author = "Yerko Berrocal and Pearse, {Damien D} and Amanpreet Singh and Andrade, {Christian M.} and McBroom, {Jordan S.} and Rocio Puentes and Eaton, {Mary J.}",
year = "2007",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1089/neu.2007.0327",
language = "English",
volume = "24",
pages = "1761--1772",
journal = "Journal of Neurotrauma",
issn = "0897-7151",
publisher = "Mary Ann Liebert Inc.",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Social and environmental enrichment improves sensory and motor recovery after severe contusive spinal cord injury in the rat

AU - Berrocal, Yerko

AU - Pearse, Damien D

AU - Singh, Amanpreet

AU - Andrade, Christian M.

AU - McBroom, Jordan S.

AU - Puentes, Rocio

AU - Eaton, Mary J.

PY - 2007/11/1

Y1 - 2007/11/1

N2 - Neuropathic pain and motor dysfunction are difficult problems following spinal cord injury (SCI). Social and environmental enrichment (SEE), which models much of the clinical rehabilitation environment for post-SCI persons, is the focus of the current investigation which examines the effects of multiple-housing and the addition of climbing spaces, improved bedding and crawl toys on the sensory and motor recovery following a severe contusive SCI. Efficacy was determined with sensory testing, open-field motor behavioral testing, lesion volume analysis and quantification of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the lumbar spinal cord with and without SEE provided during the recovery period. Sensory and motor testing were performed weekly for 12 weeks following SCI. SEE significantly and permanently reversed cutaneous allodynia, but not thermal hyperalgesia, to near normal levels. The gross locomotor performance (BBB [Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan] motor scores) significantly improved about two points. In addition, the BBB subscale scores were significantly improved nearly seven points by the end of the study. SEE also significantly improved foot rotation to normal levels and reduced gridwalk footfall errors nearly 50%, but had no effect on stride length or base of support dysfunctions. SEE significantly increased the total volume of a thoracic segment of cord encompassing the injury site at 12 weeks, by reducing cavitation and increasing both the volume of grey and white matter spared, compared to SCI alone. When BDNF levels were examined in the injured lumbar spinal cord, SEE significantly returned BDNF levels to near-normal. These data suggest that immediate use of SEE after contusive SCI is able to improve overall spinal cell survival and prevent much of the sensory and motor dysfunction that accompanies contusive SCI.

AB - Neuropathic pain and motor dysfunction are difficult problems following spinal cord injury (SCI). Social and environmental enrichment (SEE), which models much of the clinical rehabilitation environment for post-SCI persons, is the focus of the current investigation which examines the effects of multiple-housing and the addition of climbing spaces, improved bedding and crawl toys on the sensory and motor recovery following a severe contusive SCI. Efficacy was determined with sensory testing, open-field motor behavioral testing, lesion volume analysis and quantification of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the lumbar spinal cord with and without SEE provided during the recovery period. Sensory and motor testing were performed weekly for 12 weeks following SCI. SEE significantly and permanently reversed cutaneous allodynia, but not thermal hyperalgesia, to near normal levels. The gross locomotor performance (BBB [Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan] motor scores) significantly improved about two points. In addition, the BBB subscale scores were significantly improved nearly seven points by the end of the study. SEE also significantly improved foot rotation to normal levels and reduced gridwalk footfall errors nearly 50%, but had no effect on stride length or base of support dysfunctions. SEE significantly increased the total volume of a thoracic segment of cord encompassing the injury site at 12 weeks, by reducing cavitation and increasing both the volume of grey and white matter spared, compared to SCI alone. When BDNF levels were examined in the injured lumbar spinal cord, SEE significantly returned BDNF levels to near-normal. These data suggest that immediate use of SEE after contusive SCI is able to improve overall spinal cell survival and prevent much of the sensory and motor dysfunction that accompanies contusive SCI.

KW - Growth factors

KW - Locomotor function

KW - Sensory function

KW - Therapeutic approaches for the treatment of CNS

KW - Traumatic spinal cord injury

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=39449123614&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=39449123614&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1089/neu.2007.0327

DO - 10.1089/neu.2007.0327

M3 - Article

VL - 24

SP - 1761

EP - 1772

JO - Journal of Neurotrauma

JF - Journal of Neurotrauma

SN - 0897-7151

IS - 11

ER -