Smoking urges during treatment and long-term cessation among low-income African Americans

Monica Webb Hooper, Noella A. Dietz, Joseph C. Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: The urge to smoke is a predictor of smoking relapse. Little research has focused on the impact of acute urges during treatment among African Americans. This study examined the relationship between smoking urges and long-term abstinence among treatment seekers. Design: Longitudinal prospective investigation. Urges to smoke were assessed at the initial (session 1) and final (session 8) sessions among adult smokers (N=308) enrolled in a 4-week group intervention trial. Nicotine patch use was assessed over 30 days. Main Outcome Measures: Biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence (7-day ppa) was assessed immediately post-intervention, and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Hierarchical logistic regressions tested associations between session 1 and session 8 urges and 7-day ppa at each smoking status assessment. Results: There was a significant overall decrease in smoking urges (M=29, SD=15 at session 1; M=17, SD=11 at session 8). After controlling for covariates, urges to smoke at session 1 were unrelated to 7-day ppa at any of the assessment points. However, session 8 urges were inversely associated with 7-day ppa post-intervention (AOR=.94, CI:.92-.97), at 3-months (AOR=.93, CI: .89-.97), 6-months (AOR=.93, CI: .90-.97), and 12-months (AOR=.96, CI: .96-.99). Nicotine patch use was positively associated with 7-day ppa at each assessment. Conclusions: The most robust predictors of abstinence through 12-months post-intervention were decreased urges over the 4-week, 8-session group intervention and the frequency of nicotine patch use. Interventions aimed at addressing the needs of African American smokers should address urges and encourage nicotine replacement adherence to increase abstinence rates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)395-402
Number of pages8
JournalEthnicity and Disease
Issue number4
StatePublished - Sep 1 2017


  • African Americans
  • Cravings
  • Nicotine replacement therapy
  • Smoking cessation
  • Tobacco
  • Urges

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology


Dive into the research topics of 'Smoking urges during treatment and long-term cessation among low-income African Americans'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this