Context: Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for urothelial carcinoma. Objective: To elucidate the association between pretreatment smoking status, cumulative exposure, and time since smoking cessation and the development of and outcomes for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) in patients treated with transurethral resection of the bladder (TURBT) or radical cystectomy (RC). Evidence acquisition: A literature search was performed in September 2014 using the PubMed and Scopus databases limited to articles published in English since 1990. Eight contemporary studies on smoking and UBC development and 26 studies on smoking and UBC prognosis met the inclusion criteria. Evidence synthesis: Current cigarette smoking increases the risk of UCB incidence by two to fourfold, while smoking cessation attenuates this risk. Smoking status, exposure, and cessation have an evident impact on disease recurrence for patients who undergo TURBT, with weaker associations between smoking and other endpoints for TURBT and RC patients. Conclusion: Retrospective evidence suggests that smoking markedly increases UCB risk and may lead to unfavorable outcomes for patients who already have UCB; smoking cessation can attenuate these undesirable effects. Patient summary: Current evidence proves that cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for the development of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). There is a growing body of evidence that smoking negatively affects outcomes for UCB patients treated with transurethral resection and/or radical cystectomy, although not uniformly. Long-term smoking cessation seems to mitigate the detrimental effects of smoking in non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
- Intravesical therapy
- Muscle-invasive bladder cancer
- Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer
- Radical cystectomy
- Transurethral resection
- Urothelial carcinoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas