Skin dose mapping for fluoroscopically guided interventions

Perry B. Johnson, David Borrego, Stephen Balter, Kevin Johnson, Daniel Siragusa, Wesley E. Bolch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


Purpose: To introduce a new skin dose mapping software system for interventional fluoroscopy dose assessment and to analyze the benefits and limitations of patient-phantom matching. Methods: In this study, a new software system was developed for visualizing patient skin dose during interventional fluoroscopy procedures. The system works by translating the reference point air kerma to the location of the patient's skin, which is represented by a computational model. In order to orient the model with the x-ray source, geometric parameters found within the radiation dose structured report (RDSR) are used along with a limited number of in-clinic measurements. The output of the system is a visual indication of skin dose mapped onto an anthropomorphic model at a resolution of 5 mm. In order to determine if patient-dependent and patient-sculpted models increase accuracy, peak skin dose was calculated for each of 26 patient-specific models and compared with doses calculated using an elliptical stylized model, a reference hybrid model, a matched patient-dependent model and one patient-sculpted model. Results were analyzed in terms of a percent difference using the doses calculated using the patient-specific model as the true standard. Results: Anthropometric matching, including the use of both patient-dependent and patient-sculpted phantoms, was shown most beneficial for left lateral and anterior-posterior projections. In these cases, the percent difference using a reference model was between 8 and 20, using a patient-dependent model between 7 and 15, and using a patient-sculpted model between 3 and 7. Under the table tube configurations produced errors less than 5 in most situations due to the flattening affects of the table and pad, and the fact that table height is the main determination of source-to-skin distance for these configurations. In addition to these results, several skin dose maps were produced and a prototype display system was placed on the in-clinic monitor of an interventional fluoroscopy system. Conclusions: The skin dose mapping program developed in this work represents a new tool that, as the RDSR becomes available through automated export or real-time streaming, can provide the interventional physician information needed to modify behavior when clinically appropriate. The program is nonproprietary and transferable, and also functions independent to the software systems already installed on the control room workstation. The next step will be clinical implementation where the workflow will be optimized along with further analysis of real-time capabilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5490-5499
Number of pages10
JournalMedical physics
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • fluoroscopically guided interventions
  • hybrid phantoms
  • radiation dose structured reports
  • skin dose
  • skin dosimetry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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