The physiology of entrainment of orthodromic circus movement tachycardia (CMT) was studied using ventricular pacing during 18 episodes of induced CMT in 7 patients with atrioventricular (AV) accessory pathways. The first paced impulse was delivered as late as possible in the tachycardia cycle (mean 88 ± 5% of the spontaneous cycle length [CL]). Entrainment was demonstrated by the following criteria: 1:1 retrograde conduction via the accessory pathway; capture of atrial, ventricular and His bundle electrograms at the pacing rate; and resumption of tachycardia at its previous rate after cessation of pacing. The number of ventricular paced impulses ranged from 5 to 14 (mean 8 ± 3), and entrainment occurred in 2 to 7 paced cycles (mean 4 ± 2). Orthodromic activation of a major part of the reentry circuit (manifest entrainment) was demonstrated during 9 episodes by the occurrence of His bundle electrogram preceding the first CMT QRS at the time anticipated from the last paced beat. In the 9 other episodes, persistent retrograde His bundle activation and AV nodal penetration by each paced impulse caused a delay (mean 79 ± 25 ms) in activation of the His bundle preceding the first CMT QRS after the last paced beat. The mean pacing CL achieving manifest entrainment was 92 ± 3% of the tachycardia CL, compared with 84 ± 3% for retrograde AV nodal penetration (p < 0.01). In conclusion, manifest entrainment of orthodromic CMT can be demonstrated by ventricular pacing at very long CLs; shorter CLs may cause CMT termination due to retrograde AV nodal penetration.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine