Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters

Lisa Rw Plano, Anna C. Garza, Tomoyuki Shibata, Samir M. Elmir, Jonathan Kish, Christopher D. Sinigalliano, Maribeth L. Gidley, Gary Miller, Kelly Withum, Lora E. Fleming, Helena M Solo-Gabriele

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus, MRSA, are human colonizing bacteria that commonly cause opportunistic infections primarily involving the skin in otherwise healthy individuals. These infections have been linked to close contact and sharing of common facilities such as locker rooms, schools and prisons Waterborne exposure and transmission routes have not been traditionally associated with S. aureus infections. Coastal marine waters and beaches used for recreation are potential locations for the combination of high numbers of people with close contact and therefore could contribute to the exposure to and infection by these organisms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and characteristics of the shedding of methicillin sensitive S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA by human bathers in marine waters. Results. Nasal cultures were collected from bathers, and water samples were collected from two sets of pools designed to isolate and quantify MSSA and MRSA shed by adults and toddlers during exposure to marine water. A combination of selective growth media and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to identify and perform limited characterization of the S. aureus isolated from the water and the participants. Twelve of 15 MRSA isolates collected from the water had identical genetic characteristics as the organisms isolated from the participants exposed to that water while the remaining 3 MRSA were without matching nasal isolates from participants. The amount of S. aureus shed per person corresponded to 105 to 106 CFU per person per 15-minute bathing period, with 15 to 20% of this quantity testing positive for MRSA. Conclusions. This is the first report of a comparison of human colonizing organisms with bacteria from human exposed marine water attempting to confirm that participants shed their own colonizing MSSA and MRSA into their bathing milieu. These findings clearly demonstrate that adults and toddlers shed their colonizing organisms into marine waters and therefore can be sources of potentially pathogenic S. aureus and MRSA in recreational marine waters. Additional research is needed to evaluate recreational beaches and marine waters as potential exposure and transmission pathways for MRSA.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5
JournalBMC Microbiology
Volume11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 10 2011

Fingerprint

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus
Pediatrics
Water
Nose
Infection
Bacteria
Recreation
Aquatic Organisms
Methicillin
Prisons
Opportunistic Infections
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Skin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Microbiology

Cite this

Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters. / Plano, Lisa Rw; Garza, Anna C.; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Elmir, Samir M.; Kish, Jonathan; Sinigalliano, Christopher D.; Gidley, Maribeth L.; Miller, Gary; Withum, Kelly; Fleming, Lora E.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

In: BMC Microbiology, Vol. 11, 5, 10.01.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Plano, LR, Garza, AC, Shibata, T, Elmir, SM, Kish, J, Sinigalliano, CD, Gidley, ML, Miller, G, Withum, K, Fleming, LE & Solo-Gabriele, HM 2011, 'Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters', BMC Microbiology, vol. 11, 5. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-11-5
Plano, Lisa Rw ; Garza, Anna C. ; Shibata, Tomoyuki ; Elmir, Samir M. ; Kish, Jonathan ; Sinigalliano, Christopher D. ; Gidley, Maribeth L. ; Miller, Gary ; Withum, Kelly ; Fleming, Lora E. ; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M. / Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters. In: BMC Microbiology. 2011 ; Vol. 11.
@article{3997173d98974be8a8b4c77c4a5b9c3d,
title = "Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters",
abstract = "Background: Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus, MRSA, are human colonizing bacteria that commonly cause opportunistic infections primarily involving the skin in otherwise healthy individuals. These infections have been linked to close contact and sharing of common facilities such as locker rooms, schools and prisons Waterborne exposure and transmission routes have not been traditionally associated with S. aureus infections. Coastal marine waters and beaches used for recreation are potential locations for the combination of high numbers of people with close contact and therefore could contribute to the exposure to and infection by these organisms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and characteristics of the shedding of methicillin sensitive S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA by human bathers in marine waters. Results. Nasal cultures were collected from bathers, and water samples were collected from two sets of pools designed to isolate and quantify MSSA and MRSA shed by adults and toddlers during exposure to marine water. A combination of selective growth media and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to identify and perform limited characterization of the S. aureus isolated from the water and the participants. Twelve of 15 MRSA isolates collected from the water had identical genetic characteristics as the organisms isolated from the participants exposed to that water while the remaining 3 MRSA were without matching nasal isolates from participants. The amount of S. aureus shed per person corresponded to 105 to 106 CFU per person per 15-minute bathing period, with 15 to 20{\%} of this quantity testing positive for MRSA. Conclusions. This is the first report of a comparison of human colonizing organisms with bacteria from human exposed marine water attempting to confirm that participants shed their own colonizing MSSA and MRSA into their bathing milieu. These findings clearly demonstrate that adults and toddlers shed their colonizing organisms into marine waters and therefore can be sources of potentially pathogenic S. aureus and MRSA in recreational marine waters. Additional research is needed to evaluate recreational beaches and marine waters as potential exposure and transmission pathways for MRSA.",
author = "Plano, {Lisa Rw} and Garza, {Anna C.} and Tomoyuki Shibata and Elmir, {Samir M.} and Jonathan Kish and Sinigalliano, {Christopher D.} and Gidley, {Maribeth L.} and Gary Miller and Kelly Withum and Fleming, {Lora E.} and Solo-Gabriele, {Helena M}",
year = "2011",
month = "1",
day = "10",
doi = "10.1186/1471-2180-11-5",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
journal = "BMC Microbiology",
issn = "1471-2180",
publisher = "BioMed Central",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters

AU - Plano, Lisa Rw

AU - Garza, Anna C.

AU - Shibata, Tomoyuki

AU - Elmir, Samir M.

AU - Kish, Jonathan

AU - Sinigalliano, Christopher D.

AU - Gidley, Maribeth L.

AU - Miller, Gary

AU - Withum, Kelly

AU - Fleming, Lora E.

AU - Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

PY - 2011/1/10

Y1 - 2011/1/10

N2 - Background: Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus, MRSA, are human colonizing bacteria that commonly cause opportunistic infections primarily involving the skin in otherwise healthy individuals. These infections have been linked to close contact and sharing of common facilities such as locker rooms, schools and prisons Waterborne exposure and transmission routes have not been traditionally associated with S. aureus infections. Coastal marine waters and beaches used for recreation are potential locations for the combination of high numbers of people with close contact and therefore could contribute to the exposure to and infection by these organisms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and characteristics of the shedding of methicillin sensitive S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA by human bathers in marine waters. Results. Nasal cultures were collected from bathers, and water samples were collected from two sets of pools designed to isolate and quantify MSSA and MRSA shed by adults and toddlers during exposure to marine water. A combination of selective growth media and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to identify and perform limited characterization of the S. aureus isolated from the water and the participants. Twelve of 15 MRSA isolates collected from the water had identical genetic characteristics as the organisms isolated from the participants exposed to that water while the remaining 3 MRSA were without matching nasal isolates from participants. The amount of S. aureus shed per person corresponded to 105 to 106 CFU per person per 15-minute bathing period, with 15 to 20% of this quantity testing positive for MRSA. Conclusions. This is the first report of a comparison of human colonizing organisms with bacteria from human exposed marine water attempting to confirm that participants shed their own colonizing MSSA and MRSA into their bathing milieu. These findings clearly demonstrate that adults and toddlers shed their colonizing organisms into marine waters and therefore can be sources of potentially pathogenic S. aureus and MRSA in recreational marine waters. Additional research is needed to evaluate recreational beaches and marine waters as potential exposure and transmission pathways for MRSA.

AB - Background: Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus, MRSA, are human colonizing bacteria that commonly cause opportunistic infections primarily involving the skin in otherwise healthy individuals. These infections have been linked to close contact and sharing of common facilities such as locker rooms, schools and prisons Waterborne exposure and transmission routes have not been traditionally associated with S. aureus infections. Coastal marine waters and beaches used for recreation are potential locations for the combination of high numbers of people with close contact and therefore could contribute to the exposure to and infection by these organisms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and characteristics of the shedding of methicillin sensitive S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA by human bathers in marine waters. Results. Nasal cultures were collected from bathers, and water samples were collected from two sets of pools designed to isolate and quantify MSSA and MRSA shed by adults and toddlers during exposure to marine water. A combination of selective growth media and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to identify and perform limited characterization of the S. aureus isolated from the water and the participants. Twelve of 15 MRSA isolates collected from the water had identical genetic characteristics as the organisms isolated from the participants exposed to that water while the remaining 3 MRSA were without matching nasal isolates from participants. The amount of S. aureus shed per person corresponded to 105 to 106 CFU per person per 15-minute bathing period, with 15 to 20% of this quantity testing positive for MRSA. Conclusions. This is the first report of a comparison of human colonizing organisms with bacteria from human exposed marine water attempting to confirm that participants shed their own colonizing MSSA and MRSA into their bathing milieu. These findings clearly demonstrate that adults and toddlers shed their colonizing organisms into marine waters and therefore can be sources of potentially pathogenic S. aureus and MRSA in recreational marine waters. Additional research is needed to evaluate recreational beaches and marine waters as potential exposure and transmission pathways for MRSA.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78650907969&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78650907969&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1186/1471-2180-11-5

DO - 10.1186/1471-2180-11-5

M3 - Article

C2 - 21211014

AN - SCOPUS:78650907969

VL - 11

JO - BMC Microbiology

JF - BMC Microbiology

SN - 1471-2180

M1 - 5

ER -