Sex Differences in the Psychiatric Manifestations of Alzheimer's Disease

Donna Cohen, Carl Eisdorfer, Philip Gorelick, Daniel Luchins, Sally Freeh, Todd Semla, Gregory Paveza, Helen Shaw, J. Wesson Ashford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


Objective: To test the null hypothesis, ie, that there are no gender differences in psychiatric problems manifest in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Design: Survey. Setting: Patients living in the community and evaluated at Alzheimer's disease and geriatric outpatient programs. Patients: Three hundred twenty-eight women and 186 men clinically diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease using NINCDS/ADRDA or DSM-III-R criteria. Measurements: Psychiatric signs and symptoms recorded following a psychiatric interview, including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results: Approximately two- thirds of both men and women had psychiatric problems, but women had significantly more multiple symptoms. When pairs of symptoms were analyzed for independence, agitation was only significantly associated with paranoia in men, whereas in women agitation was significantly associated with most other psychiatric problems. Conclusion: The higher prevalence of multiple psychiatric problems in women may be due to many factors, including sociodemographic influences, physician bias, and/or other differences between men and women. The finding of a different pattern of association of symptoms with agitation in men and women deserves replication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)229-232
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1993

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


Dive into the research topics of 'Sex Differences in the Psychiatric Manifestations of Alzheimer's Disease'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this