Serum HIV-1 p24 antibody, HIV-1 RNA copy number and CD4 lymphocyte percentage are independently associated with risk of mortality in HIV-1-infected children

Lynne M. Mofenson, D. Robert Harris, Kenneth Rich, William A. Meyer, Jennifer S. Read, John Moye, Robert P. Nugent, James Korelitz, James Bethel, Savita Pahwasect

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: The role of HIV-1 antibody in modulating disease progression must be assessed in the context of other immune and viral load markers. We evaluated the association between HIV-1 p24 antibody, HIV-1 RNA, immune complex-dissociated (ICD) p24 antigen, CD4 cell percentage, and mortality in a cohort of 218 HIV-infected children enrolled in a trial of intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis of bacterial infections. Methods: CD4 cell percentage was measured and sera collected and stored at baseline and every 3 months on study (1988-1991). Stored sera were assayed for HIV-1 p24 antibody, HIV-1 RNA, and ICD p24 antigen. Mortality was recorded during the trial and updated through 1996 (mean total follow-up, 6.3 years). Results: Eighty-one (37%) children died; probability of mortality for children with baseline HIV-1 p24 antibody concentrations of undetectable (< 1), 1-4, 5-124, and ≥ 125 reciprocal titer units (RTU) was 61, 50, 24, and 10%, respectively. A 3.5-fold increase in the relative risk (RR) of death [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.2-5.5] was observed among children with baseline HIV-1 p24 antibody concentration < 5 RTU compared with ≥ 5 RTU. In multivariate analyses, p24 antibody, HIV-1 RNA, and CD4 cell percentage but not ICD p24 antigen were independently associated with mortality; the RR of death increased by 1.7 (95% CI, 1.3-2.1) for each log10 decrement in baseline HIV-1 p24 antibody. Conclusions: HIV-1 p24 antibody, HIV-1 RNA and CD4 cell percentage independently predict mortality amongst infected children. Whereas CD4 cell percentage provides an estimate of the general degree of immune suppression, HIV-1 p24 antibody could provide an easily obtained, inexpensive assessment of CD4 cell function and could augment prognostic information provided by CD4 cell count and viral load for clinical management of infected children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-39
Number of pages9
JournalAIDS
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • CD4 lymphocyte percentage
  • HIV-1 p24 antibody
  • HIV-1 RNA
  • Immune complex-dissociated p24 antigen
  • Mortality
  • Pediatric HIV-1 infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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