Serotonergic Function, Two-Mode Models of Self-Regulation, and Vulnerability to Depression: What Depression Has in Common With Impulsive Aggression

Charles S Carver, Sheri L. Johnson, Jutta Joormann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

256 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Evidence from diverse literatures supports the viewpoint that two modes of self-regulation exist, a lower-order system that responds quickly to associative cues of the moment and a higher-order system that responds more reflectively and planfully; that low serotonergic function is linked to relative dominance of the lower-order system; that how dominance of the lower-order system is manifested depends on additional variables; and that low serotonergic function therefore can promote behavioral patterns as divergent as impulsive aggression and lethargic depression. Literatures reviewed include work on two-mode models; studies of brain function supporting the biological plausibility of the two-mode view and the involvement of serotonergic pathways in functions pertaining to it; and studies relating low serotonergic function to impulsiveness, aggression (including extreme violence), aspects of personality, and depression vulnerability. Substantial differences between depression and other phenomena reviewed are interpreted by proposing that depression reflects both low serotonergic function and low reward sensitivity. The article closes with brief consideration of the idea that low serotonergic function relates to even more diverse phenomena, whose natures depend in part on sensitivities of other systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)912-943
Number of pages32
JournalPsychological Bulletin
Volume134
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2008

Fingerprint

Aggression
Depression
Reward
Violence
Cues
Personality
Self-Control
Self-regulation
Vulnerability
Brain

Keywords

  • depression
  • dual-process models
  • self-regulation
  • serotonin
  • two-mode models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • History and Philosophy of Science

Cite this

Serotonergic Function, Two-Mode Models of Self-Regulation, and Vulnerability to Depression : What Depression Has in Common With Impulsive Aggression. / Carver, Charles S; Johnson, Sheri L.; Joormann, Jutta.

In: Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 134, No. 6, 01.11.2008, p. 912-943.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{c3a41f3562ff49f8b4c9ae3a14da1146,
title = "Serotonergic Function, Two-Mode Models of Self-Regulation, and Vulnerability to Depression: What Depression Has in Common With Impulsive Aggression",
abstract = "Evidence from diverse literatures supports the viewpoint that two modes of self-regulation exist, a lower-order system that responds quickly to associative cues of the moment and a higher-order system that responds more reflectively and planfully; that low serotonergic function is linked to relative dominance of the lower-order system; that how dominance of the lower-order system is manifested depends on additional variables; and that low serotonergic function therefore can promote behavioral patterns as divergent as impulsive aggression and lethargic depression. Literatures reviewed include work on two-mode models; studies of brain function supporting the biological plausibility of the two-mode view and the involvement of serotonergic pathways in functions pertaining to it; and studies relating low serotonergic function to impulsiveness, aggression (including extreme violence), aspects of personality, and depression vulnerability. Substantial differences between depression and other phenomena reviewed are interpreted by proposing that depression reflects both low serotonergic function and low reward sensitivity. The article closes with brief consideration of the idea that low serotonergic function relates to even more diverse phenomena, whose natures depend in part on sensitivities of other systems.",
keywords = "depression, dual-process models, self-regulation, serotonin, two-mode models",
author = "Carver, {Charles S} and Johnson, {Sheri L.} and Jutta Joormann",
year = "2008",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1037/a0013740",
language = "English",
volume = "134",
pages = "912--943",
journal = "Psychological Bulletin",
issn = "0033-2909",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Serotonergic Function, Two-Mode Models of Self-Regulation, and Vulnerability to Depression

T2 - What Depression Has in Common With Impulsive Aggression

AU - Carver, Charles S

AU - Johnson, Sheri L.

AU - Joormann, Jutta

PY - 2008/11/1

Y1 - 2008/11/1

N2 - Evidence from diverse literatures supports the viewpoint that two modes of self-regulation exist, a lower-order system that responds quickly to associative cues of the moment and a higher-order system that responds more reflectively and planfully; that low serotonergic function is linked to relative dominance of the lower-order system; that how dominance of the lower-order system is manifested depends on additional variables; and that low serotonergic function therefore can promote behavioral patterns as divergent as impulsive aggression and lethargic depression. Literatures reviewed include work on two-mode models; studies of brain function supporting the biological plausibility of the two-mode view and the involvement of serotonergic pathways in functions pertaining to it; and studies relating low serotonergic function to impulsiveness, aggression (including extreme violence), aspects of personality, and depression vulnerability. Substantial differences between depression and other phenomena reviewed are interpreted by proposing that depression reflects both low serotonergic function and low reward sensitivity. The article closes with brief consideration of the idea that low serotonergic function relates to even more diverse phenomena, whose natures depend in part on sensitivities of other systems.

AB - Evidence from diverse literatures supports the viewpoint that two modes of self-regulation exist, a lower-order system that responds quickly to associative cues of the moment and a higher-order system that responds more reflectively and planfully; that low serotonergic function is linked to relative dominance of the lower-order system; that how dominance of the lower-order system is manifested depends on additional variables; and that low serotonergic function therefore can promote behavioral patterns as divergent as impulsive aggression and lethargic depression. Literatures reviewed include work on two-mode models; studies of brain function supporting the biological plausibility of the two-mode view and the involvement of serotonergic pathways in functions pertaining to it; and studies relating low serotonergic function to impulsiveness, aggression (including extreme violence), aspects of personality, and depression vulnerability. Substantial differences between depression and other phenomena reviewed are interpreted by proposing that depression reflects both low serotonergic function and low reward sensitivity. The article closes with brief consideration of the idea that low serotonergic function relates to even more diverse phenomena, whose natures depend in part on sensitivities of other systems.

KW - depression

KW - dual-process models

KW - self-regulation

KW - serotonin

KW - two-mode models

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=56349172562&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=56349172562&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/a0013740

DO - 10.1037/a0013740

M3 - Article

C2 - 18954161

AN - SCOPUS:56349172562

VL - 134

SP - 912

EP - 943

JO - Psychological Bulletin

JF - Psychological Bulletin

SN - 0033-2909

IS - 6

ER -