Sensing specific molecular interactions with the atomic force microscope

E. L. Florin, M. Rief, H. Lehmann, M. Ludwig, C. Dornmair, V. T. Moy, H. E. Gaub

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

406 Scopus citations


One of the unique features of the atomic force microscope (AFM) is its capacity to measure interactions between tip and sample with high sensitivity and unparalleled spatial resolution. Since the development of methods for the functionalization of the tips, the versatility of the AFM has been expanded to experiments where specific molecular interactions are measured. For illustration, we present measurements of the interaction between complementary strands of DNA. A necessary prerequisite for the quantitative analysis of the interaction force is knowledge of the spring constant of the cantilevers. Here, we compare different techniques that allow for the in situ measurement of the absolute value of the spring constant of cantilevers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)895-901
Number of pages7
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
Issue number9-10
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


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