Self-focusing effects of dispositional self-consciousness, mirror presence, and audience presence

Charles S. Carver, Michael F. Scheier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Notes that self-awareness theory has generated a considerable amount of research activity; however, the most widely used manipulation of self-focus--the mirror--has not been satisfactorily validated. Exp I was an attempt to do so. At the same time an attempt was made to validate the Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS), an instrument designed to measure chronic dispositions to be self-attentive. 79 female undergraduates responded to a sentence completion blank either in an empty room or while facing a mirror. Results indicate that the mirror does manipulate, and the private subscale of the SCS does measure, self-attention. Exp II, with 81 female undergraduates, was a replication of the 1st study, but using an audience instead of a mirror. Results indicate that audience presence also heightens self-attention. Implications for attentional analyses of social behavior are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)324-332
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of personality and social psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 1978


  • audience presence, self focusing effects, female college students
  • dispositional self consciousness &
  • mirror &

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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