This chapter describes protocols to establish simplified in vitro assays of Schwann cell (SC) differentiation in the absence of neurons. The assays are based on the capacity of isolated primary SCs to increase or decrease the expression of myelination-associated genes in response to the presence or absence of cell permeable analogs of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). No special conditions of media or substrates beyond the administration or removal of cAMP analogs are required to obtain a synchronous response on differentiation and dedifferentiation. The assays are cost-effective and far easier to implement than traditional myelinating SC-neuron cultures. They are scalable to a variety of plate formats suited for downstream experimentation and analysis. These cell-based assays can be used as drug discovery platforms for the evaluation of novel agents controlling the onset, maintenance, and reversal of the differentiated state using any typical adherent SC population.