A case of Salmonella typhosa infection with calculous pyelonephritis is presented. The incidence and pathology of S. typhosa urinary tract infections are reviewed. It is suggested that a predisposing anatomic abnormality must usually be present for urinary salmonella infection to occur. Further damage, including calculous formation, may occur or calculi may be a major predisposing factor. Therapy for a case without gross anatomic changes should consist of ampicillin 100 mg. per kilogram body weight per day for four to six weeks. When the infection persists in spite of ampicillin therapy, surgical intervention, including nephrectomy, may be necessary. Trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole may effectively suppress the infection.
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