Salinity, chloride, and density relationships in ion enriched Onondaga Lake, NY

Steven W. Effler, Keith Schimel, Frank J. Millero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Scopus citations


The relationship between salinity (S), chlorinity (Cl) and density (d) for the ion polluted (S = 3 to 4.5‰) and stratified Onondaga Lake are presented. The data base includes 220 determinations of the major ionic components collected from ten equally spaced depths. The salinity (S) and ionic strength (I) in the lake can be estimated from S = 1.85 Cl - 0.28, where Cl is in g kg-1 and I = 1.456 [Cl-] - 0.039, where [Cl] is in mmol L-1. Due to the high concentration of Ca2+ in the lake, the seawater equation of state (Chen and Millero, 1977a) could not be used to estimate reliable densities for the lake (Δd ∼ 100 × 10-6 g cm-3). A reliable equation of state for Onondaga Lake was derived from the composition data {Mathematical expression} where d0 is the density of water (g cm-3), Av is a temperature dependent parameter related to the infinite dilution apparent molal volumes and Bv is related to the ion-ion interactions of the lake salts. The high ionic content of the lake depresses the temperature of maximum density to 3.18°C and alters the stratification of the lake. The salinity component of the stratification represents 40% of the total density stratification.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-180
Number of pages12
JournalWater, Air, & Soil Pollution
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Jan 1 1986

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Ecological Modeling
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Pollution

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