Safety of prolonged aortic clamping with blood cardioplegia. III. Aspartate enrichment of glutamate-blood cardioplegia in energy-depleted hearts after ischemic and reperfusion injury

E. R. Rosenkranz, F. Okamoto, G. D. Buckberg, J. M. Robertson, J. Vinten-Johansen, H. I. Bugyi

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This study tests the hypothesis that aspartate enrichment of glutamate-blood cardioplegia improves metabolic and functional recovery after ischemic and reperfusion damage. Ischemic and reperfusion damage were produced in 15 dogs by 45 minutes of aortic clamping at 37°C and 5 minutes of blood reperfusion, before 2 more hours of aortic clamping (simulated operation). Six received multidose blood cardioplegia at 4° C. In nine others, the cardioplegic solution was infused at 37°C for the first 5 minutes, followed by multidose infusions at 4°C. Four received 26 mmol glutamate-enriched cardioplegic solution. In five the glutamate (13 mmol) cardioplegic solution was enriched with aspartate (13 mmol). Oxygen uptake and ventricular function (stroke work index, left atrial pressure) were measured. These data suggest aspartate enrichment produced the highest oxygen uptake (32 ± 4 versus 17 ± 2 ml/100 gm for glutamate and 7 ± 1 ml/100 gm for 4°C blood cardioplegia). Complete functional recovery occurred in aspartate/glutamate-treated hearts (stroke work index 90% ± 4%, left atrial pressure 12 ± 2 mm Hg), whereas recovery was incomplete with both glutamate alone (stroke work index 66% ± 14%, left atrial pressure 20 ± 3 mm Hg) and 4°C blood cardioplegia at low cardiac outputs. Eight of 10 hearts not receiving aspartate failed at high cardiac outputs. Aspartate enrichment of glutamate-blood cardioplegia improves recovery after severe ischemic/reperfusion damage by improving oxidative metabolism during cardioplegic infusion and during postischemic work.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)428-435
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 30 1986


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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