Safety of bilateral intravitreal injections delivered in a teaching institution

Daniel L. Chao, Ninel Z. Gregori, Joyce Khandji, Raquel Goldhardt

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Intravitreal injection is one of the most common in-office procedures performed in ophthalmic practices. In teaching institutions such as the Veterans Affairs (VA) Hospitals, patient care is delivered by physicians-in-training, while mastering intravitreal injection technique. Infectious endophthalmitis and visual loss are the most feared complications of intravitreal injections, especially in the context of recent outbreaks caused by contaminated compounded medications. Ophthalmologists and ophthalmic educators increasingly face the dilemma of timing as well as balancing the risks and benefits of bilateral treatments required by many patients. In this editorial, we discuss published reports of bilateral injections, summarize our experience with bilateral intravitreal injections in a teaching setting at the Miami VA Hospital and list our recommendations for minimizing the risk of infectious endophthalmitis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)991-993
Number of pages3
JournalExpert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2014


  • Aflibercept
  • Anti-VEGF
  • Bevacizumab
  • Bilateral intravitreal injection
  • Ophthalmology resident
  • Ranibizumab
  • Teaching institution
  • Veterans Affairs hospital

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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