### Abstract

The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the number of targets specified on the quality of exploratory factor analysis solutions with a complex underlying structure and incomplete substantive measurement theory. Three Monte Carlo studies were performed based on the ratio of the number of observed variables to the number of underlying factors. Within each study, communality, sample size, and the number of targets were manipulated. Outcomes included a measure of congruence and a measure of variability with regard to the rotated pattern matrix. The magnitude of the main effect for the influence of the number of targets on congruence and variability ranged from moderate to large. The magnitude of the interaction between the number of targets and level of communality ranged from small to moderate with regard to congruence and variability. Consistent with theoretical expectations, the minimum number of targets to specify to be reasonably assured of obtaining an accurate solution varied across study conditions.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 131-147 |

Number of pages | 17 |

Journal | Structural Equation Modeling |

Volume | 20 |

Issue number | 1 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jan 1 2013 |

### Fingerprint

### Keywords

- communality
- exploratory structural equation modeling
- Monte Carlo
- overdetermination
- sample size
- simulation

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Modeling and Simulation
- Decision Sciences(all)
- Economics, Econometrics and Finance(all)
- Sociology and Political Science

### Cite this

*Structural Equation Modeling*,

*20*(1), 131-147. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2013.742399

**Rotation to a Partially Specified Target Matrix in Exploratory Factor Analysis : How Many Targets?** / Myers, Nicholas; Ahn, Soyeon; Jin, Ying.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*Structural Equation Modeling*, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 131-147. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2013.742399

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Rotation to a Partially Specified Target Matrix in Exploratory Factor Analysis

T2 - How Many Targets?

AU - Myers, Nicholas

AU - Ahn, Soyeon

AU - Jin, Ying

PY - 2013/1/1

Y1 - 2013/1/1

N2 - The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the number of targets specified on the quality of exploratory factor analysis solutions with a complex underlying structure and incomplete substantive measurement theory. Three Monte Carlo studies were performed based on the ratio of the number of observed variables to the number of underlying factors. Within each study, communality, sample size, and the number of targets were manipulated. Outcomes included a measure of congruence and a measure of variability with regard to the rotated pattern matrix. The magnitude of the main effect for the influence of the number of targets on congruence and variability ranged from moderate to large. The magnitude of the interaction between the number of targets and level of communality ranged from small to moderate with regard to congruence and variability. Consistent with theoretical expectations, the minimum number of targets to specify to be reasonably assured of obtaining an accurate solution varied across study conditions.

AB - The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the number of targets specified on the quality of exploratory factor analysis solutions with a complex underlying structure and incomplete substantive measurement theory. Three Monte Carlo studies were performed based on the ratio of the number of observed variables to the number of underlying factors. Within each study, communality, sample size, and the number of targets were manipulated. Outcomes included a measure of congruence and a measure of variability with regard to the rotated pattern matrix. The magnitude of the main effect for the influence of the number of targets on congruence and variability ranged from moderate to large. The magnitude of the interaction between the number of targets and level of communality ranged from small to moderate with regard to congruence and variability. Consistent with theoretical expectations, the minimum number of targets to specify to be reasonably assured of obtaining an accurate solution varied across study conditions.

KW - communality

KW - exploratory structural equation modeling

KW - Monte Carlo

KW - overdetermination

KW - sample size

KW - simulation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84873347953&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84873347953&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/10705511.2013.742399

DO - 10.1080/10705511.2013.742399

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84873347953

VL - 20

SP - 131

EP - 147

JO - Structural Equation Modeling

JF - Structural Equation Modeling

SN - 1070-5511

IS - 1

ER -