Rose Bengal- and Riboflavin-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy to Inhibit Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Keratitis Isolates

Francisco Halili, Alejandro Arboleda, Heather Durkee, Mukesh Taneja, Darlene Miller, Karam A. Alawa, Mariela C. Aguilar, Guillermo Amescua, Harry W. Flynn, Jean Marie Parel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Purpose To evaluate the in vitro efficacy of rose bengal- and riboflavin-mediated photodynamic therapy for inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. Design Experimental study. Methods Two different multidrug-resistant, clinical MRSA isolates were grown on nutrient agar, prepared in suspension, and adjusted to concentrations of 1.5 × 104 colony-forming units per milliliter. Bacterial suspensions were mixed with rose bengal, riboflavin, or water according to experimental group. Tested in triplicate, groups included: Group I, MRSA control; Group II, MRSA with 0.1% rose bengal; Group III, MRSA with 0.03% rose bengal; and Group IV, MRSA with 0.1% riboflavin. All experimental groups were exposed to 3 lighting conditions: dark, ambient room light for 30 minutes, and 5.4 J/cm2 with either green light-emitting diode (LED) or ultraviolet-A (UV-A) irradiation. Plates were photographed at 72 hours and custom software measured bacterial growth inhibition. Results Complete growth inhibition of both MRSA strains was demonstrated (1) for both rose bengal concentrations under ambient and green LED irradiation, and (2) for the 0.1% rose bengal in the dark. The 0.03% rose bengal in dark conditions showed complete inhibition of strain 2 but incomplete inhibition of strain 1. Riboflavin showed almost complete inhibition with UV-A irradiation but demonstrated minimal inhibition for both strains in dark and ambient light conditions. Conclusions Rose bengal- and riboflavin-mediated photodynamic therapy demonstrated complete growth inhibition in vitro of 2 multidrug-resistant MRSA strains. Rose bengal was also effective in dark and ambient conditions. These results may have implications for in vivo therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)194-202
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican journal of ophthalmology
StatePublished - Jun 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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