Robust links between religious/spiritual struggles, psychological distress, and well-being in a National Sample of American Adults

Hisham Abu-Raiya, Kenneth I. Pargament, Neal Krause, Gail Ironson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

64 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study is one of the first attempts to examine the relationships between religious and spiritual struggles (r/s struggles) measured comprehensively and indicators of psychological distress (i.e., depressive symptoms, generalized anxiety) and well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, happiness) using a nationally representative sample of American adults (N = 2,208) dealing with a wide range of major life stressors. In addition, it examines the key question of whether these relationships persist after controlling for potentially confounding psychosocial/religious influences. Correlational analyses revealed that all 5 types of the r/s struggles assessed (i.e., divine, demonic, interpersonal, moral, ultimate-meaning) correlated significantly positively with both depressive symptoms and generalized anxiety, and significantly negatively with both satisfaction with life and happiness. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that even after controlling for the effects of demographics and other potentially confounding variables (i.e., neuroticism, social isolation, religious commitment) the r/s struggle subscales added unique variance to the prediction of all 4 criterion measures. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are offered, and the limitations of the study are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)565-575
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Volume85
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2015

Keywords

  • Mental health
  • Religious/spiritual struggles
  • Wellbeing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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