We aimed to identify risk factors that predict functional imaging (FI) response to salvage chemotherapy and evaluate outcomes following autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) in primary refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL). From 1 October 1994 to 10 July 2015, 192 primary refractory HL patients were treated on sequential second line protocols. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from the date of histological confirmation of refractory disease. Covariates were analysed for relationship with FI response and EFS. By intent-to-treat, the median EFS was 8·9 years and OS 10·4 years with 41% having positive post-salvage FI. On multivariate analysis, the presence of B symptoms and bulk ≥5 cm predicted for positive FI, with odds ratios of 2·15 and 2·03, respectively. For the 167 (87%) transplanted patients, 60% had a negative pre-ASCT FI. Median EFS and OS were not reached with at a median follow-up of 3·6 years in surviving patients. Both stage IV refractory disease and persistent FI abnormality pre- ASCT were associated with worse outcomes: 3-year EFS was 84%, 54% and 28% for zero, 1 and 2 risk factors, respectively (P < 0·001). Further studies are needed to validate our prognostic model and to determine optimal therapy for patients with multiple risk factors.
- autologous stem cell transplant
- hodgkin lymphoma
- positron emission tomography
- primary refractory
ASJC Scopus subject areas