Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes Associated With Augmented Renal Clearance in Trauma Patients

Michelle B. Mulder, Sarah A. Eidelson, Matthew S. Sussman, Carl I Schulman, Edward Lineen, Rahul S. Iyenger, Nicholas Namias, Kenneth G Proctor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Augmented renal clearance (ARC; i.e., creatinine clearance [CLCr] ≥ 130 mL/min) has an incidence of 14%-80% in critically ill patients and has been associated with therapy failures for renally cleared drugs. However, the clinical implications of ARC are poorly defined. We hypothesize that modifiable risk factors that contribute to ARC can be identified in severely injured trauma patients and that these risk factors influence clinical outcome. Methods: In 207 trauma intensive care unit patients, 24-h CLCr was correlated with clinical estimates of glomerular filtration rate (by Cockroft-Gault, modification of diet in renal disease, or chronic kidney disease epidemiology), and clinical outcomes (infection, venous thromboembolism [VTE], length of stay, and mortality). Results: The population was 45 ± 20 y, 68% male, 77% blunt injury with injury severity score of 24 (17-30). Admission serum creatinine was 1.02 ± 0.35 mg/dL, CLCr was 154 ± 77 mL/min, VTE incidence was 15%, ARC incidence was 57%, and mortality was 11%. Clinical estimates of glomerular filtration rate by Cockroft-Gault, modification of diet in renal disease, chronic kidney disease epidemiology underestimated actual CLCr by 20%, 22%, or 15% (all P < 0.01). CLCr was higher in males and those who survived, and lower in those with hypertension, diabetes, positive cultures, receiving transfusions, or pressors (all P < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, male gender (odds ratio [OR] 2.9 [1.4-6.1]), age (OR 0.97 [0.95-0.99]), and packed red blood cells transfusion (OR 0.31 [0.15-0.66]) were the only independent predictors of ARC. Conclusions: ARC occurs in more than half of all high-risk trauma intensive care unit patients and is underestimated by standard clinical equations. ARC was not associated with increased incidence of VTE or infection but rather is associated with younger healthier males and reduced mortality. ARC seems to be a beneficial compensatory response to trauma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)477-483
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Volume244
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019

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AIDS-Related Complex
Kidney
Wounds and Injuries
Venous Thromboembolism
Diet Therapy
Odds Ratio
Incidence
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Intensive Care Units
Mortality
Creatinine
Epidemiology
Erythrocyte Transfusion
Nonpenetrating Wounds
Injury Severity Score
Infection
Critical Illness
Length of Stay
Multivariate Analysis

Keywords

  • ARC
  • GFR
  • Outcomes
  • Renal clearance
  • Trauma
  • VTE

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes Associated With Augmented Renal Clearance in Trauma Patients. / Mulder, Michelle B.; Eidelson, Sarah A.; Sussman, Matthew S.; Schulman, Carl I; Lineen, Edward; Iyenger, Rahul S.; Namias, Nicholas; Proctor, Kenneth G.

In: Journal of Surgical Research, Vol. 244, 01.12.2019, p. 477-483.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Augmented renal clearance (ARC; i.e., creatinine clearance [CLCr] ≥ 130 mL/min) has an incidence of 14{\%}-80{\%} in critically ill patients and has been associated with therapy failures for renally cleared drugs. However, the clinical implications of ARC are poorly defined. We hypothesize that modifiable risk factors that contribute to ARC can be identified in severely injured trauma patients and that these risk factors influence clinical outcome. Methods: In 207 trauma intensive care unit patients, 24-h CLCr was correlated with clinical estimates of glomerular filtration rate (by Cockroft-Gault, modification of diet in renal disease, or chronic kidney disease epidemiology), and clinical outcomes (infection, venous thromboembolism [VTE], length of stay, and mortality). Results: The population was 45 ± 20 y, 68{\%} male, 77{\%} blunt injury with injury severity score of 24 (17-30). Admission serum creatinine was 1.02 ± 0.35 mg/dL, CLCr was 154 ± 77 mL/min, VTE incidence was 15{\%}, ARC incidence was 57{\%}, and mortality was 11{\%}. Clinical estimates of glomerular filtration rate by Cockroft-Gault, modification of diet in renal disease, chronic kidney disease epidemiology underestimated actual CLCr by 20{\%}, 22{\%}, or 15{\%} (all P < 0.01). CLCr was higher in males and those who survived, and lower in those with hypertension, diabetes, positive cultures, receiving transfusions, or pressors (all P < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, male gender (odds ratio [OR] 2.9 [1.4-6.1]), age (OR 0.97 [0.95-0.99]), and packed red blood cells transfusion (OR 0.31 [0.15-0.66]) were the only independent predictors of ARC. Conclusions: ARC occurs in more than half of all high-risk trauma intensive care unit patients and is underestimated by standard clinical equations. ARC was not associated with increased incidence of VTE or infection but rather is associated with younger healthier males and reduced mortality. ARC seems to be a beneficial compensatory response to trauma.",
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AU - Mulder, Michelle B.

AU - Eidelson, Sarah A.

AU - Sussman, Matthew S.

AU - Schulman, Carl I

AU - Lineen, Edward

AU - Iyenger, Rahul S.

AU - Namias, Nicholas

AU - Proctor, Kenneth G

PY - 2019/12/1

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N2 - Background: Augmented renal clearance (ARC; i.e., creatinine clearance [CLCr] ≥ 130 mL/min) has an incidence of 14%-80% in critically ill patients and has been associated with therapy failures for renally cleared drugs. However, the clinical implications of ARC are poorly defined. We hypothesize that modifiable risk factors that contribute to ARC can be identified in severely injured trauma patients and that these risk factors influence clinical outcome. Methods: In 207 trauma intensive care unit patients, 24-h CLCr was correlated with clinical estimates of glomerular filtration rate (by Cockroft-Gault, modification of diet in renal disease, or chronic kidney disease epidemiology), and clinical outcomes (infection, venous thromboembolism [VTE], length of stay, and mortality). Results: The population was 45 ± 20 y, 68% male, 77% blunt injury with injury severity score of 24 (17-30). Admission serum creatinine was 1.02 ± 0.35 mg/dL, CLCr was 154 ± 77 mL/min, VTE incidence was 15%, ARC incidence was 57%, and mortality was 11%. Clinical estimates of glomerular filtration rate by Cockroft-Gault, modification of diet in renal disease, chronic kidney disease epidemiology underestimated actual CLCr by 20%, 22%, or 15% (all P < 0.01). CLCr was higher in males and those who survived, and lower in those with hypertension, diabetes, positive cultures, receiving transfusions, or pressors (all P < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, male gender (odds ratio [OR] 2.9 [1.4-6.1]), age (OR 0.97 [0.95-0.99]), and packed red blood cells transfusion (OR 0.31 [0.15-0.66]) were the only independent predictors of ARC. Conclusions: ARC occurs in more than half of all high-risk trauma intensive care unit patients and is underestimated by standard clinical equations. ARC was not associated with increased incidence of VTE or infection but rather is associated with younger healthier males and reduced mortality. ARC seems to be a beneficial compensatory response to trauma.

AB - Background: Augmented renal clearance (ARC; i.e., creatinine clearance [CLCr] ≥ 130 mL/min) has an incidence of 14%-80% in critically ill patients and has been associated with therapy failures for renally cleared drugs. However, the clinical implications of ARC are poorly defined. We hypothesize that modifiable risk factors that contribute to ARC can be identified in severely injured trauma patients and that these risk factors influence clinical outcome. Methods: In 207 trauma intensive care unit patients, 24-h CLCr was correlated with clinical estimates of glomerular filtration rate (by Cockroft-Gault, modification of diet in renal disease, or chronic kidney disease epidemiology), and clinical outcomes (infection, venous thromboembolism [VTE], length of stay, and mortality). Results: The population was 45 ± 20 y, 68% male, 77% blunt injury with injury severity score of 24 (17-30). Admission serum creatinine was 1.02 ± 0.35 mg/dL, CLCr was 154 ± 77 mL/min, VTE incidence was 15%, ARC incidence was 57%, and mortality was 11%. Clinical estimates of glomerular filtration rate by Cockroft-Gault, modification of diet in renal disease, chronic kidney disease epidemiology underestimated actual CLCr by 20%, 22%, or 15% (all P < 0.01). CLCr was higher in males and those who survived, and lower in those with hypertension, diabetes, positive cultures, receiving transfusions, or pressors (all P < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, male gender (odds ratio [OR] 2.9 [1.4-6.1]), age (OR 0.97 [0.95-0.99]), and packed red blood cells transfusion (OR 0.31 [0.15-0.66]) were the only independent predictors of ARC. Conclusions: ARC occurs in more than half of all high-risk trauma intensive care unit patients and is underestimated by standard clinical equations. ARC was not associated with increased incidence of VTE or infection but rather is associated with younger healthier males and reduced mortality. ARC seems to be a beneficial compensatory response to trauma.

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