Renal transplantation is the gold standard treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease and is associated with several advantages over dialysis, including increased quality of life, reduced morbidity and mortality, and lower healthcare costs. Barring the constraints of a limited organ supply, the goals of the patient care should focus on attaining renal transplantation while minimizing, or even eliminating, time spent on dialysis. Disparities in access to renal transplantation between African Americans and Caucasians have been extensively documented, with African Americans having significantly poorer access. There is a growing corpus of literature examining the determinants of reduced access among other racial ethnic minority groups, including Hispanics. These determinants include patient and physician preference, socioeconomic status, insurance type, patient education, and immunologic factors. We review these determinants in access to renal transplantation in the United States among all races and ethnicities.
- African Americans
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