Review and updates on the treatment of refractory and super refractory status epilepticus

Yazeed S. Alolayan, Kelly McKinley, Ritwik Bhatia, Ayham Alkhachroum

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus (RSE and SRSE) are life-threatening conditions requiring prompt initiation of appropriate treatment to avoid permanent neurological damage and reduce morbidity and mortality. RSE is defined as status epilepticus that persists despite administering at least two appropriately dosed parenteral medications, including a benzodiazepine. SRSE is status epilepticus that persists at least 24 h after adding at least one appropriately dosed continuous anesthetic (i.e., midazolam, propofol, pentobarbital, and ketamine). Other therapeutic interventions include immunotherapy, neuromodulation, ketogenic diet, or even surgical intervention in certain cases. Continuous electroencephalogram is an essential monitoring tool for diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we focus on the diagnosis and treatment of RSE and SRSE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3028
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 2 2021


  • Electroencephalogram
  • Refractory status epilepticus
  • Super-refractory status epilepticus
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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