Background. With the increase of primary lung transplantation across major centers worldwide, over the last several years the need of lung retransplant (ReTX) is likely to increase. Therefore, characterization of ReTX patients is prudent and necessary. Our study aimed to investigate and characterize the covariates and outcomes associated with lung ReTX survival in a single large U.S. transplant center. Methods. Demographic, clinical diagnoses, and comorbidities were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier statistics were used to calculate and predict survival for 30 days and up to 3 years. Cox proportional modeling was used to determine the variables associated with mortality. Results. Of included 684 lung transplants performed at the Houston Methodist Hospital between January 2009 and December 2015, 49 were lung ReTX. Median age of primary lung transplant (non-ReTX) and ReTx recipients was 62 and 49 years, respectively. Chronic graft rejection in the form of restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome was the main indications for ReTX. Compared with non-ReTX patients, ReTX patients had higher median lung allocation score (46.2 vs 37.0, respectively) and higher mortality after 6 months posttransplant. ReTX, older age, female sex, hospitalization 15 days or longer, estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60, 6-minute walk distance less than 400 ft, and donor/recipient height ratio less than 1 were significantly associated with decreased 1-year patient and graft survival. Chronic graft rejection was still the major cause of death in the long-term follow-up recipients. Conclusions. Our findings suggested that lung ReTX recipients have poor long-term survival outcomes. Lung ReTX should only be offered to carefully selected patients.
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