Retinoscopy of aquatic eyes

Robert E. Hueter, Samuel H. Gruber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Retinoscopic refraction of an aquatic eye immersed in water is shown to be biased due to refractive effects of the air-water interface between subject and examiner. Ametropias in aquatic eyes are overestimated in retinoscopy by a factor of 1.34 for marine animals and 1.33 for freshwater animals. Future reports of retinoscopically determined refractive state in aquatic eyes should be corrected for this simple physical error.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)197-200
Number of pages4
JournalVision Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1980

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems


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