Retinoic acid-induced embryopathy of the mouse inner ear

Dorothy A. Frenz, Wei Liu, Vera Galinovic-Schwartz, Thomas R. Van De Water

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Retinoic acid (RA) is an active metabolite of vitamin A that is teratogenic when present in excess during mammalian embryogenesis. We have investigated the effect of embryonic exposure to nonphysiological levels of all-trans RA on the development of the mouse inner ear. Dysmorphogenesis of both vestibular and auditory portions of the inner ear, and abnormal formation of the surrounding capsule are produced by exposure to teratogenic levels of RA at an embryonic age of 9 days (E9). There was no observable teratogenic effect of RA when administered at earlier (i.e., E7 or E8) or later (i.e., E10) stages of otic morphogenesis. We hypothesize that exposure to high levels of RA during a critical period of early otic morphogenesis interferes with the inductive tissue interactions required for inner ear development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)292-303
Number of pages12
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1996

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Embryology
  • Toxicology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


Dive into the research topics of 'Retinoic acid-induced embryopathy of the mouse inner ear'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this