Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis through Activation of the Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway: Role Of Indocyanine Green, Brilliant Blue and Implications for Chromovitrectomy

Fernando M. Penha, Marianne Pons, Elaine Fiod Costa, Nilana Meza Tenório Barros, Eduardo B. Rodrigues, Emmerson Badaró Cardoso, Eduardo Dib, Mauricio Maia, Maria E. Marin-Castaño, Michel Eid Farah

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Abstract

Purpose:To investigate the in vitro effect of four vital dyes on toxicity and apoptosis in a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line.Methods:ARPE-19 cells were exposed to brilliant blue (BriB), methyl blue (MetB), acid violet (AcV) and indocyanine green (ICG). Balanced salt solution was used as control. Five different concentrations of each dye (1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.05 and 0.005 mg/mL) and two exposure times (3 and 30 min) were tested. Cell viability was determined by cell count and MTS assay and cell toxicity by LDH assay. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to access the apoptosis process.Results:ICG significantly reduced cell viability after 3 minutes of exposure at all concentrations (p<0.01). BriB was safe at concentrations up to 0.25 mg/mL and MetB at concentrations up to 0.5 mg/mL, while AcV was safe up to 0.05 mg/ml, after 3 minutes of exposure. Toxicity was higher, when the cells were treated for 30 minutes. Expression of Bax, cytochrome c and caspase-9 was upregulated at the mRNA and protein level after ICG exposure, while Bcl-2 was downregulated. AcV and MetB were similar to control. However, BriB resulted in upregulation of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein.Conclusions:The safest dye used on RPE cells was MetB followed by BriB and AcV. ICG was toxic at all concentrations and exposure times tested. Moreover, ICG was the only dye that induced apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. BriB significantly increased Bcl-2 protein levels, which might protect against the apoptosis process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere64094
JournalPloS one
Volume8
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 10 2013

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

Cite this

Penha, F. M., Pons, M., Costa, E. F., Barros, N. M. T., Rodrigues, E. B., Cardoso, E. B., Dib, E., Maia, M., Marin-Castaño, M. E., & Farah, M. E. (2013). Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis through Activation of the Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway: Role Of Indocyanine Green, Brilliant Blue and Implications for Chromovitrectomy. PloS one, 8(5), [e64094]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064094