Purpose: To compare the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness of amblyopic and fellow eyes. We hypothesized that the RNFL of the amblyopic eye may be thinner. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational case series. Methods: Optical coherence tomography of the peripapillary RNFL thickness of amblyopic and fellow eyes was performed in 37 patients 7 to 12 years of age (mean age ± standard deviation, 9.2 ± 1.5 years) with unilateral strabismic, anisometropic, or combined-mechanism amblyopia enrolled in a randomized treatment trial. Results: Mean global RNFL thickness of the amblyopic and fellow eyes was 111.4 and 109.6 μm, respectively (mean difference, 1.8 μm thicker in the amblyopic eyes; 95% confidence interval, -0.6 to 4.3 μm). The amblyopic eye was 8 μm or more thicker than the fellow eye in 9 patients (24%); the fellow eye was 8 μm or more thicker than the amblyopic eye in 2 patients (5%); and the difference was within test-retest variability (7 μm) in 26 patients (70%). Conclusions: Our findings do not indicate that peripapillary RNFL thickness is thinner in eyes with moderate amblyopia compared with their fellow eyes.
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